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^^ THE FUTURE OF 

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E. SYLVIA PANKHURST 



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DELPHOS 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

For the Contents of this Series see the end of 
the Book. 



DELPHOS 

THE FUTURE OF INTERNATIONAL 
LANGUAGE 



BY 
E. SYLVIA PANKHURST 



London 

KEGAN PAUL. TRENCH, TRUBNER & Co., Ltd. 

New York: E. P. Button & Co. 






Made and Printed in Great Britain by 
The Bowering Press, Plymouth. 



THE LOGICAL NECESSITY 
OF INTERLANGUAGE 

ILJAVING failed to achieve a general means 
,-*■•*• of communication, mankind, in the 
realm of language, has permitted itself to 
rest internationally upon the level of the 
dumb animalsT) 

The horses whinney by the road-side, the 
dogs exchange the courtesies of nose and tail. 
Human mothers of different nationalities 
know only the dumb language of tear-filled 
eyes and clasping hands, when they meet by 
the bedside of an ailing child ; (^nd, with a 
smile and shrug of inept apology, powerful 
industriahsts, famous statesmen, and learned 
savants confess their inabiUty to exchange 
with each other the simplest of ideasTl 

^et in other provinces mankind is knitting 
the globe to a remarkable unity^ The inter- 
change of materials between distant coun- 
tries has led to an interdependence of peoples 
undreamt of in earUer times. World activities 
and needs are, and will be, ever more and 
more co-ordinated. (Sanitation, food, fuel, 
communications, transport, and education 
must be regarded from world standpoints)^ 



6 DELPHOS 

The aeroplane, the telegraph, the telephone ; 
of late wireless telegraphy and photographic 
telegraphy ; and now television, allow us to 
maintain a rich and constant communication 
with every part of the globe. It is not too 
much to prophesy that sensations other than 
those of hearing and sight will soon be trans- 
mitted by similar methods : we shall not only 
see, but smell, the flowers in the old home- 
garden ; the ozone of the seaside and the 
latest electric and sunbath-treatment will 
reach us as readily as the broadcasted 
concert. By some allied means we may even 
feel the touch of distant hands. 

To-day everyone shares in such develop- 
ments. The youth of the poorest homes are 
able to install the wireless. IRadio-broadcast- 
ing thus becomes a great force, making towards 
the adoption of an international auxihary 
language.^ The British Broadcasting Com- 
pany is attempting to standardize the pro- 
nunciation of English ; but the wireless set 
carries the people far beyond the confines of 
their native tongue. The spoken word to-day 
encircles the globe and can be stored up for 
future generations. Our children's children 
will hear the singing of Nellie Melba, and, if 
they should think worth while, the speeches 
of this year's statesmen. \Yet language- 
barriers deprive the far-sent 'word of the 
universal comprehension given to musicl 



NECESSITY OF INTERLANGUAGE 7 

(jOf the influences urging towards Inter- 
language, stronger than all is the desire for 
world-friendship long latent amongst the 
kindher and wiser people of all nations, and 
now quickened to an ardent flame by the 
agonies of the World-war r\ With all its faults, 
the so-caUed League of Nations is the 
response of governments to this deep and 
ever-growing sentiment. 

Apart from its intrinsic difficulties of 
pohtical and economic rivahy, the mechanical 
business of the League is rendered tedious and 
costly by lack of a common medium. Corres- 
pondence in aU languages is received by the 
secretariat in Geneva. The adoption of two 
official languages causes the duplication of all 
official documents. Headway, the organ of 
the League of Nations Union, announced that 
during 1926 the League's Geneva staff would 
include 29 translators and interpreters at 
salaries amounting to £19,800, and, in 
addition to secretary shorthand typists, 
sixty-one other typists at salaries amounting 
to £18,300. 

International Congresses of all sorts are 
similarly impeded. Impromptu translations, 
by which the business is delayed, provide, at 
best, only a summarized paraphrase of the 
speeches, which are often garbled beyond the 
recognition of their authors, as we can 
personally testify from experience. 



8 DELPHOS 

Though prejudice and inertia have deferred 
the estabUshment of a world-language, means 
of international communication have been 
devised, of necessity, to meet many claimant 
needs. Such include the Morse Code, in- 
vented in 1832 (but foreshadowed in method 
by Bacon's cipher so early as the sixteenth 
century) ; the maritime signal code adopted 
by England and France in 1862 and soon 
after by all nations ; the Gregorian calendar ; 
maps, and figures, the face of the clock ; the 
measuration of time, and the notation of 
music. Chemistry, botany, and other sciences 
have their universal signs and nomenclature. 
The "Formulario de Mathematica" of Peano, 
1895-1908, has completed the elimination of 
language from mathematics. Dewey's decimal 
classification of books, invented in 1873, 
meets no Hnguistic barriers. The civiUzed 
world west of Germany has adopted the 
Roman alphabet, which is always becoming 
more widely used in printing German. The 
Angora government has resolved to use it 
instead of Arabic characters for the Turkish 
language, and missionaries substitute it for 
those of the Far Eastern tongues. 

In default of a general international 
auxiUary, composite languages have grown 
up along frontiers and where, from conquest, 
commerce, immigration, peoples of different 
race have been long associated. These com- 



NECESSITY OF INTERLANGUAGE g 

promise-languages include the Benguela of 
Portuguese East Africa and the Congo, the 
Lingua Geral of South America, the Pidgin 
Enghsh, French and Russian of the Far East, 
Hindustani, the interlanguage of India, the 
Lingua Franca of the Levant, and Chinook, 
used by Europeans trading with the North 
American Indians. A similar compromise- 
jargon was employed by the Indians speaking 
different languages before the advent of the 
Europeans,f or interlanguage is, in the long run, 
a human necessity and no mere modern fad. 
The War and its settlements stimulated the 
movement for nationhood amongst small 
populations. Writers who hitherto would 
have clothed their ideas in the language of 
one of the great Empires, now employ the 
speech of their own small people. Countries 
that long slumbered in the stagnation of old 
tradition are now being fired by the spirit of 
scientific investigation ; from India comes 
Jagadis Chunder Bose with his wonderful 
researches into plant response and physiology. 
The speed of scientific progress rushes far 
ahead of the pace it displayed a generation 
ago. Those who would keep abreast of the 
times in any hne of investigation cannot wait 
for translations and find a knowledge, even of 
three or four languages, inadequate. A ready 
means of placing theories and discoveries 
before investigators is required. 



10 DELPHOS 

Within the frontiers, learning spreads from 
class to class, ever more widely diffused 
amongst the people. This is a genuine index 
of progress, and indicates the possibility of 
establishing an interlanguage which will 
spread with the growth of education, and 
assist in promoting that growth. 



II 

THE BEGINNING OF INTERLANGUAGE 

TO .the educated world the present 
international incomprehension is of 
comparatively recent origin. From the time 
of the Romans until the seventeenth century 
Latin was the language of learning ; and 
through it Newton, Kepler, Copernicus, 
Grotius, Harvey the discoverer of the circula- 
tion of the blood, gave their discoveries to the 
world. Its decline was not due to any failure 
in the language itself. Though confined to the 
use of scholars, it was being modified by 
usage, as all living languages must be, and in 
harmony with the general trend of language, 
it was becoming analytical. Remember that 
classical Latin includes only 202 authors and 
a number of inscriptions, — whilst medieval 
Latin comprises many thousands of books. 

whe fall of Latin came with the reaction 
against scholasticism and the awaking of the 
spirit of inquiry, which strives to ascertain 
fact by experiment and rejects reliance upon 
tradition.^ Bacon, a foremost leader in this 
movement, wrote his greatest scientific works 
in EngUsh, but translated them into Latin, 
because of its wide currency. Even then he 



12 DELPHOS 

indicated the need for a new international 
medium. 

Another feature of the time which con- 
tributed to the disuse of Latin was the then 
new enthusiasm for nationaUty, which burst 
forth during the ardent days of EHzabeth in 
a wealth of creative exploits. The breaking 
away from Roman Catholicism, which claimed 
superiority to the national Kings and 
Governments and made Latin its vehicle, had, 
but a little earlier, shaken the fabric of 
European society to its foundations. Indeed, 
it was in the Church that the first blow at 
Latin was delivered. The result was a 
glorious enrichment of the national languages, 
which were transcended by their use as 
vehicles for the most splendid thoughts of the 
day. Ceasing to be a medium for constructive 
ideas, Latin became crystallized, like Irish or 
any other language, left, as it were, in cold 
storage. 

In 1629 Descartes, ** the Father of Modern 
Philosophy ", wrote to his friend Mersenne, 
propounding the theory of a universal 
language, so easy that : 

" It will not be a marvel that uneducated 
people should learn in less than six hours to 
compose with the aid of a dictionary. ..." 
** I believe that this language is possible, 
and that one could discover the science on 
which it depends, by means of which the 



BEGINNING OF INTERLANGUAGE 13 

peasants could better judge the truth of 
things than do the philosophers at the 
present time." 

The creation of such a medium was the 
subject of earnest speculation by many of 
those powerful minds whose efforts laid the 
foundations of modern science. Vieta, 
Thomas Harriot, Oughtred, and Descartes 
had collected and extended the mathematical 
symbols. William Oughtred's Key to Mathe- 
matics first popularized the use of decimals 
in this country. 

" When I first fell from that verbose way 

of tradition of the mathematics used by the 

ancients and of late by almost all . . . into 

the symbohc way ... I was presently 

greatly taken by it. . . . And I was put 

upon an earnest desire that the same course 

might be taken in other things." 

Thus wrote Seth Ward,^ Bishop of SaUs- 

bury, on reading Oughtred's work. Ward 

was an enthusiast for symbohsm in language 

and for the project of his learned colleague 

John Wilkins, Bishop of Chester, Warden of 

Wadham College, Oxford, Master of Trinity 

College, Cambridge, and one of the founders 

of the Royal Society. Wilkins defended the 

Copemican Theory and declared that people 

must not go to theological works for scientific 

* Bishop Ward, Vindicics Academiarum, 4to, 
Oxford, 1654. 



14 DELPHOS 

argument. He discussed the possibility of 
visiting the moon in a flying machine. His 
Mercury, or the Swift and Secret Messenger is 
a cryptographic writing and his language 
scheme, called an Essay towards a Real 
Character and a Philosophical Language (1668) 
was published by the Royal Society. 

In 166 1 George Dalgarno published his 
Ars signorum, which was submitted by 
Charles II to four eminent persons, on whose 
advice the author received a letter of royal 
commendation. He also invented a method 
of teaching the deaf-and-dumb, and an 
alphabet of manual signs. These, with his 
language, were reprinted by the Maitland 
Society in 1834. Amongst other early 
schemes were those of Herman Hugo, 1617, 
Francis Lodowych, 1646, who used symbolic 
signs between five lines, as in music, and 
G. J. Vossius, one of the most learned men 
of his time. 

Already in 1650 Sir Thomas Urquhart, the 
English translator of Rabelais, had written a 
humorous parody of universal language-^a 
sure sign that the subject was what is called 
*' in the air ". Since that time there have 
probably been thousands of attempts. Up- 
wards of 300 examples are still in existence. 

Pascal (1623-1662) advocated the universal 
language, and Leibniz (1646-1716) occupied 
himself with the idea from the age of eighteen 



BEGINNING OF INTERLANGUAGE 15 

to the end of his Hfe. He desired the creation 
of a language which should be an instrument 
of reason. The words must embody the 
definition of ideas and reveal to the eyes the 
verities relative to those ideas, so that they 
might be deduced by algebraic transforma- 
tion. He argued that all complex ideas are 
the product of simple ideas, as is the case 
with figures. If the letters of the alphabet 
were made synonymous, on the one hand with 
figures, on the other hand with ideas, the 
composition of an idea and its decomposition 
into its simple elements could be accom- 
pHshed. The numbers i to 9 might be made 
to indicate the nine first consonants ; the 
vowels should be represented by the numbers 
ten, a hundred, a thousand, ten thousand, 
and a hundred thousand respectively. In 
order to create his vocabulary of words which 
would hold a mirror up to knowledge, he 
proposed to analyse all human ideas and 
reduce them to simple elements. To devise 
a logical grammar, he decided to work out 
his theories on the fabric of an existing 
language — Latin^^ The analysis of ideas was 
never reahzed. [His keen analysis of grammar 
was the great Hnguistic contribution of 
Leibniz. Determined to abohsh all non- 
essentials, he declared that all verbs required 
but one declension, and that it is useless for 
them to indicate either person or number, as 



i6 DELPHOS 

this is done by the subject. Artificial gender 
he discarded. Nouns need not indicate 
number, as this can be done by a preceding 
article or adjective. Adjectives require no 
concordance, prepositions should show case, 
conjunctions mood. There is no difference 
between adverbs and adjectives, the adverb 
being merely the adjective of the verb ; and 
not much between the adjective and the noun, 
the noun being merely an adjective joined to 
the idea of a thing, or a state of being. The 
verb, moreover, is often a noun or adjective 
accompanying the verb to he, which he held 
to be the only essential verb. In these ideas 
Leibniz anticipated the most drastic an- 
alytical grammarians of to-day?\ 

As Latin fell in the revolt against the 
international control of the Papacy, so will 
the international language ride forward to 
world-usage on the flood-tide of inter- 
na tionaUsm, now rising against the wars the 
national governments have made. That a 
common auxiliary language must accompany 
the world-fraternity of peoples was recognized 
during the French Revolution. Citizen 
Delormel presented a Pro jet d'une Langue 
Universelle to the National Convention of 
1795, urging that men and peoples should be 
met by the gentle guidance of fraternity. 
Voltaire, de Brosses, President of the Bur- 
gundy Parliament, and Condorcet, author of 



BEGINNING OF INTERLANGUAGE 17 

the Progres de VEsprit Humain, were ad- 
vocates of universal language. Volney (1757- 
1820), himself the author of works on the 
philosophical study of language and the 
application of the European alphabet to the 
Asiatic tongues, estabUshed, through the 
Institute of France, a prize to encourage 
research into international grammar. 

The same idea swayed EngHsh idealists of 
the period. Francis Homer, sometime 
Member of Parliament for St Ives, wrote in 
1799: 

" Lord Webb Seymour has come to me 
with a plan which his brother the Duke has 
for some time been attending to, of forming 
a philological society with a view to the 
invention of a real character^. . . Marsden, 
Leyton, Boucher, and other philologists 
have been spoken to. The project is a 
grand one. . . ." 

The learned Scott, Lord Monboddo (James 
Burnett, 1714-1799), who was likened to 
Dr Johnson and whose pre-Darwin contention 
that man is a civiUzed species of monkey 
was ridiculed in his day, was also a prophet 
of Interlanguage.2 
Nietzsche (1844-1900) in his Menschliches 

* Real character was accepted at the time as 
denoting the universal language of symbols. 

* Dissertation on the Origin and Progress of 
Language, Edinburgh, 1774. 



i8 DELPHOS 

Allzumenschliches, made a double prophecy : 
" In some far off future there will be a 
new language, used at first as a language 
of commerce ; then for all, as surely as 
some time or other there will be aviation. 
Why else should philologists have studied 
the laws of language for a whole century, 
and have estimated the necessary, the 
valuable, and the successful portion of 
each separate language ? " 
Max Miiller, that great student of com- 
parative philology, ardently endorsed the 
international language idea. Lecturing before 
the Royal Institution of Great Britain in 
1863, he made the following very important 
pronouncement : 

** To people acquainted with a real 
language, the invention of an artificial 
language is by no means an impossibility ; 
nay, such a language might be more 
perfect, more regular, more easy to learn 
than any of the spoken tongues of man ". 
Dr Henry Sweet, pre-eminent in the study 
of English phonetics and comparative phil- 
ology, contributed essays on international 
language to the Encyclopcedia Britannica. He 
urged that the inconvenience of linguistic 
diversities had been felt since the dawn of 
civihzation, and that the need for an inter- 
national medium had now become urgent. 
He rejected all the national languages as too 



BEGINNING OF INTERLANGUAGE 19 

difficult, pointing out that they are only in 
part rational and contain multitudes of 
irregularities. He charged the makers of 
artificial languages with having copied the 
worst faults of the national tongues. 



Ill 

THE A PRIORI LANGUAGES 

THE artificial language-projects may be 
divided into two categories : The 
a priori, or purely invented, and the a 
posteriori, which claims to be based on exist- 
ing language. This classification cannot be 
exact. Since all human expression is the 
result of received impressions, those wljo have 
desired to invent an altogether new language 
have not entirely succeeded in ridding them- 
selves of precedent. On the other hand, the 
early attempts at a posteriori language were 
largely a priori, their authors lacking the 
knowledge and industry essential to the 
building of a true a posteriori language. 

Amongst the a priori languages may be 
classed the systems of Pasigraphy, or 
universal writing. In Pasigraphy each word 
is given an equivalent sign, generally a 
number, in each language. Thus if 2 is the 
number internationally given to bread, it 
will be inteUigible to all. The system is 
already appUed in chemistry, the maritime 
signal code, and for other practical purposes. 
In deaUng with languages there is the 
essential difficulty that they are not all 



THE A PRIORI LANGUAGES 21 

constructed in the same manner ; it would 
be difficult to apply the same numeration to 
idiomatic French and to idiomatic English. 
Early attempts at Pasigraphy were those of 
Hugo in 1617 and Kircher in 1655. 

The earUer a priori languages were mainly 
philosophical, aiming, as we have seen, at 
creating an alphabet of human thought, and 
expressing more by symbolism than could be 
conveyed in the same compass by words. 

Dalgarno, who wrote in Latin with sim- 
pUfied spelling, gave a common form to the 
name of individuals of the same genus, 
varying only the last letter to denote the 
different species, thus : 

NrjksL = elephant. Nijkn = horse. Niyke 
= donkey. N-r^ko = mule. 

Bishop Wilkins placed ideas in forty classes, 
each denoted by a sign within horizontal 
lines : -a-. The classes he divided into 
** differences ", denoted by signs on the left ; 
and the differences into species, denoted by 
signs on the right. The various pronouns 
were indicated, each by groups of dots, the 
past, the present, and the future by i, 2, and 
3 ; can by 6 ; may by b. 

Delormel classified ideas upon a decimal 
basis, having ten vowels in his alphabet. The 
Abbot Bonifacio Sotos Ochando, who was 
professor of Madrid University and held 
several other posts of learning, in 1845 



22 DELPHOS 

denoted inorganic objects by ab ; simple 
objects or elements by aba, matter or bodies 
in general by abe, dimensions by abi. From 
aba were derived ababa = oxygen ; ababe — 
hydrogen ; ababi — nitrogen. In the language 
of Letellier (1850) a = animal; ab = mammal; 
abo = carnivorous ; aboj = feline ; aboje = 
cat ; abode = dog ; abiv = horse. 

The primary difficulty facing all attempts 
to devise a language of classification is that 
in the world of ideas which language may be 
called on to express we are not dealing with 
a few simple elements, but with a fabric of 
infinite complexity. Moreover, ideas, and 
views as to their classification, are constantly 
changing. As Dr Donnan, in an address to 
the Royal Institution, pointed out, the 
Aristotelian classification of the elements into 
earth, air, fire, and water has long been dis- 
carded, and the chemical elements accepted 
at the beginning of the present century have 
given place to theories of electrons, protons, 
and neutrons, which may presently be 
superceded in their turn. In a language of 
classification a sHght vocaUc modification 
might produce, not a mere mispronouncia- 
tion, but the transference of a word to another 
class. The relentless progress of science 
might render great literature unintelUgible. 

Despite such objections, there can be no 
doubt that all natural languages grew up, in 



THE A PRIORI LANGUAGES 23 

part at least, as languages of classification. 
Before gender was developed primitive 
peoples classified their names for things 
according to totemistic ideas. In one of the 
African languages the substantives are still 
divided into nine classes. In most languages 
such classes have been gradually worn down 
till they have come to indicate only the three 
genders. The attribution of the masculine 
or feminine gender to words denoting in- 
animate objects, which occurs in many 
languages, is a survival of totemistic classifi- 
cation. 

J. A. Decourdemanche, in his Grammatre 
de Tchingane} argues that all language was 
originally formed from the joining into words 
of monosyllables, and even of simple letters, 
each of which had a distinct value in the 
meaning of the word. He presents an able 
case for the beUef that, whatever its origin, 
Gipsy speech in its present state is a practical 
example of a language formed according to 
the principles attempted in vain by the more 
sophisticated seekers after the universal 
philosophical language. 

SymboHsm has estabUshed itself in the 
representation of chemistry and mathematics, 
and may triumph also in new directions. 
Whilst it has many attractive features, it 
must lack, until it has grown old in use, the 

* Paul Geuthner, Paris, 1908. 



24 DELPHOS 

historic and social influences which belong to 
a posteriori language. It would seem more 
possible to adapt a system of symbols to 
writing than to speech ; and for conveying 
practical and scientific ideas than for Htera- 
ture and the expression of emotion. 

In spite of its difficulties, the philosophical 
language of classification and symbolism has 
proved a constant subject of attraction. New 
schemes for it still appear, and even so late 
a writer as Dr Henry Sweet admitted a 
preference for such a medium. 

In 1885 a committee appointed by the 
French Society Internationale de Linguistique 
reported that the universal language must 
be philosophical and must have nothing in 
common with any natural tongue. 

The language of classification which re- 
ceived the widest measure of popularity was 
Sohesol, invented in 18 17 by Fran9ois Sudre, 
a French music-master. Its vocabulary was 
formed from the notes of the scale : do, re, 
mi, fa, sol, la, si. By transferring the accent 
from one syllable to another, verbs, adverbs, 
adjectives, and nouns, personal and im- 
personal, were formed from a single stem. 
A Solresol message could be given in music, 
coloured fights, or flags. It could be used for 
communicating with ships at sea or for the 
finger language of the blind. It was favour- 
ably reported on by the French Institute on 



THE A PRIORI LANGUAGES 25 

four occasions, received a prize of ten thou- 
sand francs at the Paris Exhibition of 1855 
and a medal at the London Exhibition of 
1862, and was endorsed by Victor Hugo. Its 
author was invited to expound his method 
before the Emperor Napoleon IIL 

The Langue Blue of the Parisian, Leon 
Bollack, emerged in 1899. His method was 
to draw up a list of all the pronounceable 
monosyllables he could discover containing 
not more than five letters. It happened that 
amongst the number were Pnabs, Kvaf, 
Krelv, Mrolm, and Sparf. Langue Blue 
became remarkably popular. How far it was 
from likeness to any existing language may 
be gathered from its rendering of the opening 
words of the Lord's Prayer : Nea per, ev 
ra seri in silu. 



IV 

THE A POSTERIORI LANGUAGES 

' I ^HE a posteriori languages began later 
-■- than the a priori, though some date 
from an early period. The first was probably 
CarpophorophiU, based on Latin and pub- 
lished by an unknown author in Leipzig in 
1734. A remarkable early sketch was the 
Langue Nouvelle of Faiguet, Treasurer of the 
Bureau des Finances, Chalons-sur-Marnes, 
who proposed it for international use by the 
academies of learning. It appeared in the 
famous Encyclopedie of the eighteenth century 
by Diderot and d'Alembert. It had no 
article, no gender, no concordance of adjec- 
tives ; its substantives formed their plural 
in S., and were otherwise invariable, case 
being shown by prepositions. The verbs had 
but one conjugation, which was exceedingly 
simple. Person and number were not in- 
dicated by the verb. The vocabulary was 
not worked out ; indeed, the philological 
research requisite to the construction of a 
true a posteriori vocabulary had not yet been 
accomplished ; but the scheme was far in 
advance of many later attempts. 

Conununicationssprache, by J. Schipfer 



A POSTERIORI LANGUAGES 27 

(Wiesbaden), 1839, was an attempt to sim- 
plify French. Pantos-dimou-glossa, by Lucien 
de Rudelle (France, 1858) had a vocabulary 
based on Greek, Latin and the neo-Latin 
languages. Universal-sprache by Von Pirro 
(Paris, 1868), an important effort, was based 
on Latin, with widely known words from 
Enghsh, ItaUan, and Spanish. Its grammar 
was simple, and it was fairly inteUigible to 
many nationahties at first sight : " Men 
senior, I sende evos un gramatik, e un verb- 
bibel de un nuov glot nomed universalglot." 

VOLAPtJK 

In 1879 Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman 
CathoUc priest, conceived the idea of a 
universal language of peace and brotherhood. 
In 1880 he completed his project, and 
dedicated it to God. His effort was, indeed, 
appropriate to the times. The German 
Empire, having fought its way to existence 
under the aggressive poHcy of the Prussian 
Kings, inaugurated its rule by imposing 
rapacious peace-terms upon France in 1871 ; 
and then set itself to the methodical and 
ruthless creation of an imperial army and 
navy. The war of Turkey and Britain against 
Russia, then raging, was an awful reminder 
that the Great Powers might be d^a^vn into 
conflict at any moment. 

Schleyer called his new language Volapiik, 



28 DELPHOS 

meaning vocabulary world-speech. It was 
a cumbrous monstrosity, but its success was 
extraordinary. It far outstripped in popu- 
larity all other projects. In 1886 Dr 
Auguste Kerchhoffs, Professor of Languages 
at the Paris School of Commercial Studies, 
founded an Association for the promotion of 
Volapiik, with a committee distinguished in 
literature, science, industry, and commerce, 
which held fourteen public Volapiik classes 
simultaneously in Paris. Other bodies fol- 
lowed suit, even the Grands Magazins du 
Printemps ! In Italy the Minister of Public 
Instruction authorized free classes at Turin 
and Reggio EmiHa. By 1889, 283 Volapiik 
Societies had been formed, including many 
in the United States, in Sydney, Melbourne, 
and Capetown ; ^,600 people had qualified 
for the Volapiik diploma ; there were a 
million Volapiikists, 316 text-books in twenty- 
five languages, and twenty-five Volapiik 
journals, seven printed whoUy in that 
language. In 1889 the third Congress of 
Volapiikists met in Paris, and the speeches 
were delivered in Volapii2^ 

Two years earUer the American Philo- 
sophical Society, founded by FrankHn in 
1743, had proposed an international con- 
ference in London or Paris, to consider a 
world auxiUary language. Remarkable to 
relate, the London Philological Society had 



A POSTERIORI LANGUAGES 29 

rejected the invitation of the American body, 
on the grounds firstly, that there existed no 
vocabulary common to the Aryan languages ; 
secondly, and more remarkable still, that 
Volapiik was already established in all coun- 
tries and that it was now too late to improve 
it! 

In spite of such dicta many enthusiasts 
were finding the project of Schley er too 
cumbrous and difiicult. It has been said that 
Volapiik was destroyed by ill-judged attempts 
to improve it. Actually, it was incapable of 
improvement. A candid analysis revealed 
little, either in grammar or vocabulary, 
worthy of preservation. Its death-blow was 
struck at its second Congress in 1887, by the 
formation of an Academy to give scholarly 
advice upon its development. As con- 
scientious people, the Academicians could 
not fail to suggest alterations, but Schley er 
refused amendment. The third and last 
Congress supported the Academy in its 
reform proposals. Eventually, in 1890, 
Schleyer formed another Academy ; but his 
language was already dead. 

Schleyer and his language had served their 
turn in creating a widespread interlanguage 
movement. The original Volapiik Academy 
passed on to unfettered study of the inter- 
language problem from the standpoint of 
etymology. 



30 DELPHOS 

Esperanto 
Before considering the outcome of those 
labours, we must turn aside to notice a 
claimant star which appeared in the inter- 
language firmament in 1887. This was 
Esperanto, the creation of an ardent en- 
thusiast and most capable organizer, Dr 
Louis Lazarus Zamenhof, who, in 1887, 
published his scheme under the pseudonym : 
" Doktoro Esperanto " ; in other words 
*' Dr Hopeful ". The name, understood in 
aU European tongues, became attached to 
the language and helped to make it popular. 
Esperanto began to advance at the death 
of Volapiik. Its first small periodical, 
La Esperantisto, was founded at Niiremberg 
in 1887 ; but it was not until 1902 that 
Joseph Rhodes gathered the first EngHsh 
group at Keighly. About 1896 the language 
began to make progress in France. Nine 
years later the French Government awarded 
the membership of the Legion of Honour to 
Zamenhof, to celebrate the first of the great 
^mtemational Esperanto conferences, which, 
except in the War-period, have followed 
annually and have attracted up to 4,000 
delegates. By 1926 the Universal Esperanto 
Association laid claim to the support of 
10,000 subscribers, to 12,000 delegates in 
60 countries, to national associations in 32 
countri^, and to many societies of railway 



A POSTERIORI LANGUAGES 31 

and postal workers, policemen, blind people, 
youths. Socialists, Quakers, Roman CathoUcs, 
and so on. Esperanto talks were being 
broadcasted weekly from 30 stations in 13 
countries, and the language was used for 
broadcasting news from the Geneva radio- 
station. The Universal Telegraphic Union 
accorded it official recognition as a ** plain 
language " for transmission in 1925. The 
Union of Russian Soviet Repubhcs had issued 
stamps and postcards with inscriptions 
printed in it. The Chambers of Commerce of 
Paris, New York, Washington, and Los 
Angelos taught it in their commercial schools. 
The London Chamber of Commerce granted 
diplomas for it. The Spanish Government 
made Zamenhof a Commander of the Order 
of Isabella in 1909, and issued official invita- 
tions to attend the Universal Esperanto 
Congress in Barcelona. The Bulgarian 
Government and the French Parliament have 
voted subsidies. Esperanto is used for 
advertising purposes by most of the trade- 
fairs of Europe, and by the Governments of 
some small nations. Some countries en- 
courage its use by policemen and railway and 
tram employees. The International Labour 
Office of the League of Nations publishes a 
monthly circular in it. In 1922 some primary 
and secondary schools in 320 towns in 17 
countries held classes in Esperanto, and 



32 DELPHOS 

evening classes were held in 1,200 towns in 
39 countries. The British Board of Education 
permitted its teaching in certain schools. In 
April, 1922, it was taught in eleven English 
primary schools to 881 pupils, in two secon- 
dary schools to 43 children, in one private 
school to 40 pupils, in ten evening schools 
to 269 pupils ; in Scotland to 90 pupils in two 
primary schools, and to 89 pupils in two 
secondary schools. Though the teaching by 
public authorities reached but a tiny pro- 
portion of the populace, even this had been 
obtained only by persistent lobbying. 

The world congress of International As- 
sociations in September, 1920, passed a 
resolution recommending adherence to the 
important Esperanto movement, " deferring 
all improvements until the language ha4been 
officially adopted by the governments j 

Much of the support accorded to Esperanto 
is undoubtedly prompted by desire for a 
medium of international understanding, with- 
out regard to its particular form. Esperanto 
is simply " the international language " to 
most of its enthusiasts ; yet to the devotees 
of Volapiik, it seemed that the language of 
Schleyer had been builded upon a rock. 

At the first Assembly of the League of 
Nations Senator Lafontaine of Belgium 
moved a resolution welcoming the teaching 
of Esperanto in the schools of some League 



A POSTERIORI LANGUAGES 33 

members, and instructing the Secretariat to 
prepare a Report on the results obtained. 
The resolution expressly asked for inf onnation 
regarding Esperanto teaching, not for inquiry 
into the merits of the various artificial 
languages. 

The Esperanto organization displayed, in 
providing material for the Report, that great 
efficiency which is habitual to it, and which 
it had also employed in securing the passage 
of the League resolution itself. An Esperanto 
conference of Educationists was called in 
Geneva, at the headquarters of the League of 
Nations. The delegates included representa- 
tives of sixteen governments, and were 
welcomed by Sir Eric Drummond, Secretary 
General of the League of Nations. The 
Report of the League Secretariat was highly 
favourable ; but the third Assembly referred 
the question to its Commission for Intellectual 
Co-operation. The Commission called for a 
further Report, which was presented by 
G. de Reynold^ on July 31st, 1923. This 
report was hostile to Esperanto, declaring 
that from the educational standpoint its 
barbarity and lack of precision would tend 
to destroy in pupils the sense of the meaning 
and beauty of words, and that its employment 
would be "at once an effect and a cause of 

^ Published in the Revue de Geneve, May and June, 
1925. 



34 DELPHOS 

intellectual decadence " ; and would be so 
regarded in future times. In September, 
1922, M. de Rio Branco, Brazilian Minister 
at Berne, and a member of the League of 
Nations Assembly also published a criticism 
hostile to Esperanto. 

Ido 
The Paris Exhibition of 1900 was a 
meeting-ground for people of advanced ideas 
and international sympathies from all coun- 
tries. A French professor of mathematics, 
named Lean, rose to the practical possibihties 
of the hour, by gathering a group of scientists 
to form a " Delegation for the Adoption of 
an AuxiUary Language ", which was to 
secure the choice of an interlanguage by the 
newly created International Association of 
Academies. Three hundred and thirty-one 
delegates of learned societies and 1,200 
individual academicians were enhsted ; but 
in 1907 the Association of Academies declared 
itself incompetent to deal with the matter. 
The Delegation, therefore, resolved to make 
itself the adjudicating body, and offered to 
recommend Esperanto provided it could be 
modified in certain directions. Messrs Cou- 
turat and Lean, Treasurer and Secretary of 
the Delegation, Professors Jespersen of 
Copenhagen, Ostwald of Leipzig, Baudoin 
de Courtenay of St Petersburg, the Marquis 



A POSTERIORI LANGUAGES 35 

de Beaufront, and others were appointed to 
act with the Esperantist Linguistic Com- 
mittee ; but the Esperantist Committee 
refused even to discuss the matter. The 
Delegation then adopted a modification of 
Esperanto, called Ido,^ the Esperanto word 
for descendent. By this title it frankly con- 
fessed itself a modified Esperanto. The two 
versions are closely aUied. Each has its body 
of supporters, but the Esperantists are by 
far the larger group. Ido claims centres in 
21 countries. 

In 1894 Dr Zamenhof had himself proposed 
modifications of Esperanto. These he sub- 
mitted to the readers of the small magazine 
Esperanto ; but, only a few votes being 
recorded on either side, he decided to main- 
tain the language as first pubhshed. Since 
that time the Esperantists have resisted 
alterations. 

Variants of Esperanto include Ant ido, 
Lingvo Kosmopolita, Esperantido, and Nov- 
Esperanto by Dr Rene de Saussure of 
Switzerland, for many years a member of the 
Esperantist Academy, who works in harmony 
with that body. Dr Max Talmey, in the 
United States, has produced a variant of Ido, 
called Ilo, which stands for the initial letters 
of International Language, plus 0, the 

^ Originally based on a project submitted by the 
Marquis de Beaufront. 



36 DELPHOS 

inevitable Ido-Esperanto termination of the 
substantive. Ilo, it appears, was the name 
given to I do during the first two years of its 
existence. 

Idiom Neutral and Others 
Whilst Esperanto was on the threshold of 
its career, the perfect language was still being 
sought by earnest students, who more and 
more came to look for it amongst the elements 
of the natural European languages. In this 
country Mr George J. Henderson pubhshed 
through Triibner in 1889, an attempt to 
simpUfy Latin called Lingua, and followed 
this with Langue Facile, Latinesce, and 
Anglo-Franca, a rather grotesque amalgam of 
Frerich and English. Amongst those who 
preceded him were the Germans, E. Lauda 
and J. Stempfl, whose attempts were based 
on Latin, and Boltz, who tried to simplify 
Greek. In 1890 Dr Rosa, of Turin, published 
two projects for simplified Latin. 

JuHus Lott, the constructor of the Vienna 
railways, an old propagandist of Volapiik, 
and Dr Albert Liptay, medical officer to the 
naval commission of Chili stationed in France, 
both endeavoured to inaugurate a more 
scientific research into the international 
elements of language. Lott published Mun- 
dohngue in 1889, and wrote in it words 
which are comprehensible to us all, and 



A POSTERIORI LANGUAGES 37 

reveal a great progress in intemationality : 
" Le possibility de un universal lingua 
pro le civilisat nations ne esse dubitabil, 
nam noi ha tot elements pro un tal lingue 
in nostre Ungues, sciences, etc ". 
Liptay (Lengua Catolica, 1891) insisted 
that the international language was not to 
be invented, but discovered amid existing 
language. He declared the creation of a 
language beyond the power of an individual ; 
and proposed general principles, to be sub- 
mitted to the world of savants, in the form 
of a plebiscite, open to all interested. The 
efforts of Lott and Liptay mark a distinct 
advance in the Interlanguage movement. 

In 1893 Voldemar Rosenberger, a Russian 
engineer, was elected director of the old 
Volapiik Academy. He laid before it pro- 
posals for a new language, including three 
thousand international words. Thereafter a 
language called Idiom Neutral, mainly the 
creation of Rosenberger, was built up by the 
Academy, and officially adopted by it in 
1898. The vocabulary was selected on the 
principle of greatest intemationality. Many 
of the chosen words were international up to 
seven languages. Only in 1902, after nearly 
ten years' work, during which at least some 
thirty new projects had appeared from other 
sources, did the Academy authorize the 
pubhcation of its language. It was more 



38 DELPHOS 

scientifically international than anything 
that had gone before, and its grammar 
contained several logical simpUfications. Yet 
it had many faults, which resulted in the 
distortion of carefully selected international 
words. 

Interlingua 

" Interlingua is the standard of the insur- 
rection against the routine of red tape and 
the tyranny of the ancient grammarian '*, 
thus wrote Kerchoffs, the first director of 
the Volapiik Academy, in 1886. Giuseppe 
Peano, the distinguished mathematician of 
Turin, was presently to translate those words 
into a language scheme, and to adopt Inter- 
lingua as its title. Professor Peano is one 
of the greatest authorities on the logical basis 
of mathematics and on symbolic logic. His 
ideographic system has reduced logic to 
algebraic formulae, which dispense with 
language. By similar methods he has created 
a language which is intelligible without study 
to all who know Latin, and almost without 
study to those who know one European 
language, although ignorant of Latin. He 
writes : 

*' Qui stude Interlingua stude etymologia 

et valor e exacto de vocabulos in suo lingua." 
The EngHsh of that is : 

Who studies Interlingua studies the 



V 



A POSTERIORI LANGUAGES 39 

etymology and exact meaning of the words 

in his own language." 

Peano's mathematical researches have 
necessitated a wide international corres- 
pondence. Already in the eight een-nineties 
he was corresponding with his fellow mathe- 
maticians of other nationahties in InterUngua, 
then called " Latino sine flexione ". For the . 
study of Chinese mathematics he induced his 
friend and one-time pupil, Giovanni Vacca, 
Professor of Mathematics in Genoa, to leam 
Chinese. 

Going later to Germany, to study un- 
published manuscripts of Leibniz on the 
infinitesimal calculus, Professor Vacca ob- 
served certain pages devoted to interlanguage. 
He saw that his friend was following on the 
same Unes. This news encouraged Peano to 
continue his system. Professor Vacca intro- 
duced the manuscripts to Professor Louis 
Couturat,^ of the Ido delegation, who 
investigated them, with the aid of the French 
Government, and arranged for their pub- 
lication. On January 3rd, 1904, Professor 
Peano read a paper^ before the Academia 
delle Scienze di Torino, which began in 

1 La Logique de Leibniz, Opuscules et fragments 
inedits de Leibniz, Paris, Alcan ; with L. Leau, 
Histoire de la Langue Universelle, Hachette, Paris. 

* Published in the minutes of the Turin Academy 
of Sciences. 



40 DELPHOS 

classical Latin and ended in Interlingua. He 
there showed, according to the reasoning of 
Leibniz supported by arguments of his own, 
that declension, formal gender, and con- 
jugation can be dispensed with. As he 
discussed each simplification, he embodied it 
in his text, which thus gradually passed into 
InterHngua. 

Originating in the desire of scientists to 
overcome lingual barriers for practical 
scientific purposes, InterHngua, from its 
inception, became a vehicle of original 
thought amongst people too much occupied 
with constructive work to engage in pro- 
paganda. The fifth edition of Peano's 
important Formulario Mathematico, 1908, 
was published in Interlingua. The inter- 
national review of mathematics edited by 
him has appeared in it since 1903. Fanti, a 
member of the Academia, in 1925 used it for 
a work on the principles of radio-telegraphy 
and telephony. Such scientific publications 
as the Acta Astronomica of the Cracow 
Observatory, the Bollettino de Mathematica 
of Florence, and the Russian Ruch Filozo- 
ficzny already make constant or occasional use 
of InterHngua ; Graphicus, the principal 
organ of the Itahan printing trade, has a 
regular technical article in Interlingua. 

Interlingua marked a new stage in the 
interlanguage movement, because it was the 



A POSTERIORI LANGUAGES 41 

first artificial language to be constructed, not 
according to individual choice but upon 
definite scientific principles. 

In 1908 the old Volapiik Academy dis- 
carded its later adoption, Rosenberger's 
Idiom Neutral, and took InterUngua as its 
official medium, at the same time appointing 
Professor Peano its director. The Academy 
is now the " Academia pro InterUngua ". It 
continues studying the interlanguage pro- 
blem, in the spirit of impartial inquiry. All 
who are interested in the interlanguage 
problem may join it and contribute to the 
organ of the Academy in whatever artificial 
language they may prefer. 

Other Activities 
Several more recent languages have arisen, 
which share many of the neo-Latin char- 
acteristics of InterUngua ; but stand midway 
between it and Esperanto. These include 
Romanal, Occidental, and Medial Europan, 
Pan Roman, later called Universal, which 
appeared in 1903, may be placed in a similar 
class. 

In 1911 a society for the creation of an 
International Language Bureau was formed 
at Berne. In 1920 a committee of Esperan- 
tists, Idists, and others laid before the League 
of Nations a petition, officially transmitted 



42 DELPHOS 

by the Swedish Government, urging that a 
language, to be taught in all schools through- 
out the world, should be adopted at an 
international convention. 

In 1 918 the British Government appointed 
a Parliamentary Committee on modem 
language, in view of post- War trading 
and diplomatic conditions. This Committee 
devoted a chapter to artificial language, and 
recommended that a Commission should be 
set up to study the question. 

In 1919 the International Research Council 
created a Committee to investigate the 
problem. The Chairmanship was given to 
Dr F. G. CottreU, of the American Research 
Council, and its headquarters were established 
in Washington, D.C. Co-operating com- 
mittees were formed in several countries, one 
of them being set up by the British Associa- 
tion in 1919, with Mr W. B. Hardy, Secretary 
of the Royal Society, and Dr E. A. Tripp, as 
Chairman and Secretary. This committee 
reported that neither Latin nor any existing 
national language could supply the need for 
an international auxiliary, which could be 
met, it considered, either by Esperanto or by 
Ido. Without examining the more modern 
interlanguage projects, the committee finally 
agreed to recommend Esperanto. The 
decision was made before the appearance of 
de Reynold's hostile report to the League of 



A POSTERIORI LANGUAGES 43 

Nations Commission for Intellectual Co- 
operation. 

In the United States an International 
Auxiliary Language Association is at work. 
Its Treasurer is Mr Dave H. Morris and its 
Secretary Dr Shenton, of Columbia Univer- 
sity. This organization aims at promoting 
impartial study and experiment. It works 
for the adoption of an auxiliary language by 
the Governments of the world, and desires 
the setting up of an International committee 
of linguistic experts to advise them. 



THE FUTURE INTERLANGUAGE : 

SOME CONDITIONS IT MUST 

SATISFY 

LIKE the Committee of the British 
Association, Hke Max Miiller, we are of 
opinion that no national language, whether 
living or dead, can serve as the world 
auxiliary. 

EngUsh is the most modern of the great 
languages, the most widely spoken, and the 
most international ; for it contains more 
foreign words than any other. Yet, because 
of its frequent lack of agreement between 
speUing and pronunciation, its great variety 
of vowel sounds, the idiomatic character it 
shares with all natural tongues, and, above 
all, its lack of political neutrality, English 
would not be acceptable to all nations. On 
the other hand, its logical and analytical 
structure, its swiftness and transparent 
accuracy of expression, and especially the 
fact that it has shed most of the old gram- 
matical forms which time has rendered useless 
and scarcely intelhgible, have made EngUsh 
a model, pointing the way which must be 
followed in building the Interlanguage ; the 



THE FUTURE INTERLANGUAGE 45 

first language to be constructed deliberately 
from its foundations by the trained intellects 
of scholars, working on definite principles of 
philological science. Such principles have 
been gradually worked out by patient study, 
since philology was placed upon firm founda- 
tions by the inauguration of the study of 
Sanskrit, which began with the founding of 
the Royal Asiatic Society in 1784.^ 

As to French. It has had, and lost, a far 
greater intemationaUty than it now possesses. 
Though easier on first acquaintance than 
many others, it is perhaps of all languages 
the one of which the intonation and idiomatic 
charm of phrase are least to be captured by 
the foreigner. Even in Chaucer's time, 
though a sort of French was widely spoken in 
this country, it was by no means the French 
of France, as he indicates in the prologue to 
his Canterbury Tales : 

" And French she spake ful fayre and 
fetisely 
After the scole of Stratford atte bowe. 
For Frenche of Parys was to hire 
unknowe." 

That French has been chosen as the ofiicial 



1 In 1786 Sir William Jones discovered that there 
was a relationship between Sanskrit, German, and 
Latin. In 1833 Francis Bopp, of Berlin, wrote the 
first Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit, Zend, 
^reek, Latin, Gothic, German, and Icelandic. 



46 DELPHOS 

language of the International Association of 
Academies, and some other international 
bodies, is evidence rather of the need for an 
interlanguage than proof that French is the 
most suitable medium. Such bodies, more- 
over, consist of persons of more than average 
education. "WTiilst the League of Nations 
has made English and French its official 
languages, the Spanish-speaking Govern- 
ments clamour for equal treatment, and the 
Italians threaten to make the same claim. 

It is obviously Utopian to hope that, under 
present conditions, the majority of mankind 
will acquire two national foreign languages. 
Such acquisition entails not merely the 
memorizing of a certain number of words and 
rules but the formation of new thought- and 
speech-habits. The difficulty of learning a 
national language, as compared with one of 
the artificial schemes, in this case Esperanto, 
is illustrated by the statement of a Chinese 
delegate to the Educationists' Conference in 
Geneva : 

" In China we learn the English language 
during at least six years ; French seven 
years ; German eight years ; Russian ten 
years ; but for Esperanto only two years 
are required." 

Latin, by reason of its political neutrality 
as a dead language and its great cultural 
gifts, has more to recommend it as the 



THE FUTURE INTERLANGUAGE 47 

common auxiliary than any other natural 
language. Yet Classical Latin also has 
difficulties of idiom and of irregularity, and 
its inflected character is ahen to the ten- 
dencies of modern thought. 

The Inter] anguage must be expressly 
created for international usage. Without 
denying the possibiHty of a new language of 
symbols in a more distant future, we may 
postulate that it must satisfy the following 
conditions : 

It must he a posteriori. The traditional 
forms have been gradually moulded by ages 
of use. Deep echoes of meaning are folded 
within them. They have become shaped to 
facility of enunciation by long employment. 
The incompleteness of all knowledge, and 
even of research into philological origins, may 
render it impracticable to realize the philo- 
sopher's dream of a vocabulary that would 
provide an enalysis of aU learning. Never- 
theless, we can possess a world-auxiUary 
which will largely serve as a master-key to 
the most universally employed of the great 
speech-famiUes, and wiU assist in a readier 
and deeper understanding of the national 
tongues. In order that the interlanguage 
may thus serve us, its vocabulary must be 
constructed on sound etymological principles. 

Philologists must not stand aloof, reviewing 
the existing interlanguage projects as cast- 



48 DELPHOS 

iron creations for which they have no sort of 
responsibihty. They must regard the making 
of the world-auxiUary as an essential part of 
their work ; and must bring to this task the 
same impartial inquiry, patient research, and 
critical analysis that they have brought to 
the study of philology itself. 

The Inter language must provide the greatest 
possible intelligibility : therefore it must reach 
the widest possible internationality . 

It will employ the Roman alphabet, the only 
alphabet of printed characters which can 
claim internationality ; for Chinese is a 
pictured language, and the characters of 
Arabic and Hindustani are essentially those 
of handwriting ; both occupy too much space 
on the printed or the written page. 

The Vocabulary of the interlanguage ivill 
consist mainly of words common to the Indo- 
European speech-family, which comprise an 
extensive dictionary. Words denoting what 
is peculiar to their country of origin, like 
Geysha, and newly-coined words of wide 
acceptance, like " Robot ", will be retained 
in their original form. 

The vocabulary of modern Europe will be 
chosen as the basis of the interlanguage ; 
because that vocabulary has been created in 
the development of modern science and 
modern thought. 

East will gain more than West by this 



THE FUTURE INTERLANGUAGE 49 

inevitable decision. An immensely larger 
number of Eastern people learn the languages 
of Europe than vice versa. An auxiliary 
language will be of far greater use to the 
Chinese if it introduce them to the vehicle 
of Western science, than if allied to their own 
tongue. Ultimately the value of the Inter- 
language must be measured by its gifts, not 
by the ease with which it can be acquired. 

The world-auxiUary, used by everyone as 
a second language, will obviate the general 
need for any other language save the native 
one. If it were in use to-day, it would be 
employed by the League of Nations and by 
the mandated territories. It would enable 
small nations to meet the Great Powers on 
equal linguistic terms. 

Inter-European words will he used in their 
Latin form, with the classical spelling and 
pronunciation. Obviously so ; for the inter- 
language which is already a giant growth in 
our midst is the new Graeco-Latin, the 
vocabulary of which is constantly accumu- 
lating in the use of the young sciences — the 
strongest unifying influence in the civiHzed 
world. 

Latin has largely contributed to the making 
of all the other European languages. EngHsh 
has been impregnated by Latin of the Roman 
period ; of the Saxon period, which was 
mainly ecclesiastical ; and of a third period, 



50 DELPHOS 

reaching from the time of the Battle of 
Hastings to the present day. Webster's 
English Dictionary gives 55,000 words of 
Graeco-Latin origin and 22,000 from Teutonic 
and other sources. Even in Russian, Mr 
Kofman has found, under the letter A alone, 
228 Graeco-Latin words. Actually only about 
10 per cent of inter-European words are of 
non-Latin origin. Any artificial language 
which aims at internationality must contain 
a majority of words derived from it. 

To give to everybody's children, all over 
the world, a language so much Uke Latin 
that whoever knows it can read Latin with 
little study would tremendously accelerate 
the spread of learning and the breaking down 
of social barriers. Latin, by international 
agreement, is the universal medium for the 
technical terms in medicine, anatomy, botany, 
and zoology. It is essential to the lawyer, 
and largely so to the historian. 

The Interlanguage is unlikely to incorporate 
Latin words which have passed out of current 
usage. It will select those which, either as 
root-words or derivatives, have survived in 
modern speech or have been coined in modem 
times. 

The Interlanguage cannot successfully form 
its vocabulary from different speech-families, 
nor can it attempt an amalgam of the forms 
existing in various branches of the European 



THE FUTURE INTERLANGUAGE 51 

speech-family. Either of these methods 
leaves the student, whether a polyglot or a 
monoglot, without a clue to the source from 
which the word has been drawn. In a 
language combining both Teutonic and Latin 
word-forms, one is at a loss to know whether 
the word alt signifies high, as in Latin and in 
the English alt-itude ; or old, as in German. 
In the formation of the sentence, subtly 
interwoven as -it is with the processes of 
thought, with euphony and phonetic evolu- 
tion and decay, a wider intemationaUty 
exists^ ; but, in the word itself, to strain 
after a complete intemationaUty is to 
achieve none. 

The orthography of the Interlanguage must 
be etymological. It cannot follow the false trail 
of simplified spelling, which Bacon said 
** belongs to the class of unprofitable sub- 
tilities ", and which leads to deformation of 
the word and the consequent obscuring of 
meaning and origin. SpeUing Reform, in 
reducing a minor obstacle, enhances the 
difficulty of understanding the meaning of 
the word, which is of more essential import- 
ance. It must be remembered that Classical 
Latin is pronounced as it is spelt, according 
to the modem view that C should be pro- 

^ Yoruba, one of the African languages, conju- 
gates its verbs as in English, though its vocabulary 
is entirely different. 



52 DELPHOS 

nounced like the English K and i like the 
English e. Th, ph, and y, which duplicate 
the sounds of t, f, and i, were imported from 
the Greek, and retained to denote their 
origin. Such words have found their way 
into modern languages and their spelling 
helps to indicate their meaning. 

By adopting the Latin orthography, the 
interlanguage will avoid the need for employ- 
ing accents, diacritical marks, sibilants, 
aspirates, or other localized or difi&cult 
sounds. 

In accord with modern tendencies, the 
Interlanguage will he logical and analytical, 
and will contain no more grammar than is 
required to elucidate the meaning. Every word 
will be found in the dictionary. Thirty years 
hence the Interlanguage will be familiar as 
the mother-tongue. Therefore simplification 
will be motived, rather to secure logic, 
swiftness, and emphasis than to ease the 
memory of burdens. 

Like other aspects of its civilization, the 
language of a people passes through many 
stages. Chinese, with its origins in the far 
reaches of antiquity, is the most analytical 
of languages. It has travelled still further 
than EngUsh in minimizing grammar and 
discarding inflections. 

Sanskrit, the most primitive descendant of 
the Ancient European has eight cases. 



THE FUTURE INTERLANGUAGE 53 

Russian and Lithuanian seven, Latin six, 
Greek five, German four. Old-English had 
six cases — now only the traces of three 
remain to us. Modern Persian has no article, 
no gender, no concordance, and replaces 
inflexion by 25 auxiliary verbs. Its nouns 
indicate the plural only where it is not other- 
wise shown. In modem Arabic are similar 
developments. Simplification is intensified 
in the compromise frontier languages. In 
the Lingua Franca of the Levant the verbs 
have only one form, originally the infinitive. 
Chinook, the North American trade-language, 
has a small vocabulary ; but, according to 
Dr Sapir,^ it is built on strictly analytical 
lines. 

In King Alfred's time Enghsh adjectives 
had eleven forms ; now we have but one. 
Our verbs also have had a drastic pruning. 
Compare our few simple forms with the 1,400 
of the ancient Greek verb, the 395 of the 
Latin, and the 62 of the modern Spanish. In 
English we produce 40 verb-forms by auxi- 
liaries, only three by inflections. Indeed, the 
whole tendency of modern language is to 
discard mere grammatical forms, and to 
replace inflections, where necessary, by 
quahfying words. The language gains thereby 
in clarity and strength. 

^ Chief of the Anthropological Division of the 
Canadian National Museum. 



54 DELPHOS 

Inflections (the conjugation of verbs, the 
declension and concordance of nouns, pro- 
nouns, and adjectives) are the result of the 
melting together, or agglutination, of small 
qualifying words the meaning of which is 
becoming obscure, and which are but partially 
if at all, required to convey the sense. They 
are retained largely as a matter of tradition, 
and their meaning tends to be duplicated by 
the additional use of separate qualifying 
words. Inflections produce endless irregu- 
larities. When an arbitrary Ust of affixes is 
attached to a large number of stems, some, 
either of the stems or the affixes, become 
modified : for example the French vivre, 
[Je\ vi(v)s. 

The Interlanguage will go even further than 
EngUsh in discarding inflections. In the 
verb comprehensibility can undoubtedly be 
reached by one unvarying form, qualified by 
other parts of speech. The modes and tenses 
are often formed in this way and can thus be 
more vividly and exactly indicated than by 
inflections : I shall see you shortly and / 
shall see you when I can have the same 
verbal voice. Yesterday I sing could, with 
usage, come to indicate the past as clearly 
to us as yesterday I sang. The question 
to be considered is whether the former sen- 
tence would be equally satisfying to the mind, 
and whether we should gain more in simpUcity 



THE FUTURE INTERLANGUAGE 55 

by abolishing the indication of the past tense 
in the verb than we should lose in emphasis. 

Obviously the analytical EngUsh infinitive 
is more expressive than the inflectional form 
of most European languages ; for other 
languages frequently use a preposition before 
the infinitive as well as the inflection. Thus 
the French say : " De nen avoir qu'un k 
apprendre". The prepositions de and a are 
pleonastic. 

The concordance of the verb with its subject, 
in number and in case, has almost disappeared 
in English : only the remnants remain, and, 
being remnants, they have lost their logic. 
We love is sufiicient to indicate that the 
action love is predicated of we. The French 
nous aimons is redundant. In Italian the 
pronoun is often dropped. 

In EngUsh we have not the passive form 
of the verb, as it existed in Latin. Though 
the verb taught, for example, has a passive 
meaning, it is merely the past tense of the 
active verb to teach. Some of the artificial 
languages have been unnecessarily cumbered 
by the obsolete passive form. 

The agreement of adjectives with the nouns 
they quaUfy and the declension of nouns, which 
have departed from EngUsh, will find no 
place in the Interlanguage. 

For the sign of plurality we cannot look to 
the Latin example ; for, being an inflected 



56 DELPHOS 

language, Latin (like Greek) has no uniform 
sign. The final s has by far the greatest 
internationality, and has the advantage of 
being pronounceable after all vowels and 
most consonants. 

Articles will probably be discarded by the 
Interlanguage. Their use is sometimes purely 
euphonic ; sometimes they indicate number, 
gender, and case. As these are generally also 
shown by the noun, their indication by the 
article is redundant. How conventional is 
their use is well displayed by the fact that it 
differs even in the closely alHed Romance lan- 
guages ; the Italians saying : la Casa mia ; 
the Spaniards mi casa. In Roumanian the 
article follows the noun and is decHned. 
Arabic has but one article, Chinese and 
Persian none. In EngHsh we are more and 
more discarding the article, and the Americans 
have gone further than we in this direction. 

The Interlanguage will not attach gender to 
inanimate objects^ — only to those possessing 
it in the actual world of nature, and only 
where the sense requires it. When the 
number of substantives indicating sex has 
been reduced to the proportions dictated by 

1 In Old-English every noun belonged to one of 
three gender classes. The old equivalents of day, 
end, and ehh were classed as mascuhne and referred 
to as he ; those of pipe, glove, and sorrow were 
feminine, and she was applied to them. 



THE FUTURE INTERLANGUAGE 57 

reason, the learning of the appropriate terms 
for male and female will impose no great 
burden on the memory. Moreover, it is 
always possible to use a special adjective for 
the purpose, as we frequently do in EngHsh : 
he-goat and she-goat. Such words as actor and 
actress, executor and executrix are common, in 
but sUghtly modified form, to many languages. 
They are more easily discernible by the ear 
than the atonic vowel-endings adopted by 
many of the artificial languages to denote 
gender. 

In syntax, the Interlanguage will follow the 
order broadly common to the European 
speech-family ; subject, verb, object, with 
the qualifying words placed as near as possible 
to the word they quaUfy. 

This estimate of the probable structure of 
the future-world Interlanguage has been 
governed by observation of the evolution 
apparent in natural language. It may be 
summed up in the words uttered by a clever 
Senegalese : 

" What we want is a Latin vocabulary 

and Chinese grammar." 

" Chinese Grammar " may be taken to 
signify the simplest grammar known, or the 
virtual absence of formal grammar. 



VI 



ANALYSIS OF THE PRINCIPAL INTER- 
LANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 

VOLAPUK 

HOW far do the principal modern attempts 
at interlanguage conform to the evolu- 
tionary trend of natural language, and to the 
features here predicted for the coming world 
auxiUary ? 

Schleyer's Volapiik, was largely a priori. 
Its author desired to make it more capable of 
expressing every nuance of thought than any 
other language. To this end, he copied many 
complexities of the natural languages, and 
added many more devised by his own fancy. 
He created no fewer than fourteen personal 
pronouns. These he post-fixed to the stem 
of the verb, even where its subject was 
already indicated : e.g. Mary lofoF = Mary 
(she) loves. 

Vowels were prefixed to the stem to express 
all tenses other than the present : e.g. a for 
the imperfect, dlofob = I loved. Mode was 
expressed by sufiixes following the pronoun : 
la for the subjunctive, dlofobLA = I might 
have loved, on for the infinitive, and so on. 
There were three forms of imperative mode 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 59 

each with its distinctive ending. Each mode 
had as many tenses as the indicative. The 
letter i, pronounced as a separate syllable and 
placed immediately before the stem, signified 
the habitual performance of an action, e.g. 
ailofohod = / have to love constantly. The 
initial p indicated the passive voice. A single 
curious word could express many things, e.g. 
peglidolod = you must be greeted. A Volapiik 
verb could take 505,440 different forms. Its 
author himself sometimes lost his way in its 
mazes and felt the need for itaUcizing the 
stem. Compound words, formed by juxta- 
position, grew to enormous length, and 
became the subject of ridicule. 

The feminine was indicated by ji or of, 
prefixed to the noun, the neuter by os. 
Nouns were decHned. Adjectives ended in 
ik, and adverbs in 0. R was usually excluded 
from the alphabet, on the charge that it was 
difficult to pronounce ; yet the EngHsh h 
was admitted, also the Spanish, written 
thus ' ; and the modified vowels a, 6, u. 
Root-words were made as monosyllabic as 
possible, as well they might be, considering 
the number of affixes ! Conjugable words 
might never end in c, i, s, x, or z. 

Schleyer declared that he had based his 
vocabulary mainly upon EngHsh, but he 
made the stems unrecognizable. Rose, 
stripped of its r and its s, was given an I at 



6o DELPHOS 

both ends, and became lol. Brother was 
changed to blod ; sister to ji-hlod. 

Root-words were capriciously chosen, with 
so Uttle regard to the essential part of the 
word that sincerity became rit, from which 
was derived ritik = true. Origin became rig, 
and original was rigud. Confusion was 
invited by using the mere modification of a 
single letter to denote large numbers of 
different words. Thus to-day — adelo, yester- 
day — adelo. 

The popularity of Volapiik may be ascribed 
to three causes. Its author was a capable 
propagandist ; it caught the fervour of the 
humanitarian and Socialist revival that 
followed the Franco-German war. Its very 
oddity was attractive to many seekers after 
the universal language. To find it scholarly, 
harmonious, and incorporating famiHar words 
might have disappointed the quest for some- 
thing unknown. It appealed to the taste that 
revelled in Gtdliver's Travels without per- 
ceiving its satire, and received with avidity 
the spurious stories of Baron Munchausen. 

Example : 

Fat obas kel binol in siils paisaludomoz 

nem ola ! Komomod monargdn ola ! — from 

the Lord's Prayer in Volapiik. 

Esperanto 
Esperanto has the letters of the Roman 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 6i 

alphabet, with the exception of q, x, and v. 
It has in addition one vowel with the breve 

mark u, and five accented consonants, c, g, 

h, J, s, not found in any natural language. 
As these have to be specially cast, the 
language cannot be set up from the ordinary 
fount of printer's type. 

The introduction of new letters and new 
spelUngs transform the international words 
adopted by Esperanto ; yet the pronuncia- 
tion is not easy. There are many difficult 
sounds, including kv, kn, sts. 

Like that of Volapiik, the essential prin- 
ciple of the Esperanto vocabulary is the 
building of words by a priori affixes, attached 
to a Hmited number of usually monosyllabic 
stems. Volapiik had three hundred such 
affixes. Esperanto has sixty-six. Aliformigilo 
= transformator (in electricity), and tagnok- 
tegaleco — equinox are grotesque examples 
of Esperanto's so-called " autonomous word 
building ". 

Father Schleyer chose English as the main 
source for his stems. Dr Zamenhof aimed at 
a wider internationality ; but he did not 
submit the words to the test of tracing them 
through the various European languages to 
discover which were in widest usage ; nor 
does he appear to have followed any other 
consistent method of selection. 



62 DELPHOS 

All Esperanto nouns end in o, adjectives 
in a, adverbs in e, the personal pronouns and 
the infinitive of the verb in i, impersonal 
pronouns in u, prepositions in au. The 
words are, in fact, classified, not, as in the 
old philosophical languages, according to 
their meaning but according to their tem- 
porary grammatical role. Such grammatical 
classification did not originate with Esperanto. 
It occurred in many older systems. The 
arbitrary endings perform the secondary 
purpose of assisting the student to detect the 
grammatical function of the word ; but they 
obscure its etymology. He knows that the 
word is a noun in that particular sentence ; 
but its meaning he fails to recognize, for its 
appearance has been changed. Boa, for 
example, has become boao, and ros^ rozo. 
People who lack a swift perception of 
grammar will stumble and hesitate in speak- 
ing, because, though aware of the meaning 
of the word, its grammatical role in the 
particular sentence is not clear to them. 

Far less can be gained by emphasizing the 
category in which a word is placed by 
grammatical convention than is lost by the 
resultant monotony of the word-endings. 

The Esperanto plural is formed, not with 
s, which has the widest internationaUty, but 
with j pronounced as y in boy or in pay. 
Critics are warned " to stop short of bias- 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 63 

phemy *' in recalling that some Greek plurals 
occur in y. Greek being an inflected language, 
had, however, many plurals. The sounds 
of oy and eye did not recur with any approach 
to the Esperanto frequency. Moreover, they 
were in harmony with the vocalic structure 
of ancient Greek and have disappeared from 
the modem Greek pronunciation. Esperanto 
stems, chosen now from one language, now 
from another, have been subjected to no 
harmonizing influence. Atonic vowel-endings, 
recalling the Latin languages, are grafted on 
to Teutonic and Slavonic roots, themselves 
rendered wholly strange to the eye by 
Esperanto spelling, and produce such curious 
words as : Birdoy = birds, pronounced bear- 
doy : rajdi = to ride ; havi = to have ; 
rajfo = right ; limo = limit. 

The Esperanto practice of placing the tonic 
accent invariably on the penultimate syllable 
also tends to disguise international words, 

such as angelo = angel, and to increase the 
monotony produced by its grammatical 
endings. Esperantists protest that if Es- 
peranto is monotonous, so also is French, 
because its accent always falls on the last 
syllable. In French, however, variety is 
obtained by the admixture of vowel and 
consonantal endings, and the mute e. In 
Esperanto monotony is added to monotony. 
When attempting verse, its votaries are 



64 DELPHOS 

obliged to lop off the endings. Thus they 
re-distribute the tonic accents, and re- 
establish variety. 

The Esperanto feminine is formed by 
interpolating in before the final o of the 
substantive. Thus the old word mother, 
traceable in every branch of the Indo- 
European language family, becomes that 
cold stranger, patrino. 

Esperanto wisely avoids artificial gender. 
It retains one case ending, the accusative. 
This is claimed as a special virtue, because, 
by its means, a sentence can be turned topsy- 
turvy. An ardent Esperantist has done his 
best to convince us that it is highly con- 
venient to be able to say " Abebw killed 
Caino ", without thereby controverting the 
Bible story. The retention of the accusative 
is, however, an illogical survival. 

Another such feature is the agreement of 
the adjectives with the nouns in number and 
case. To compensate for this, there is a 
drastic reduction of the adjectives, by the 
unhappy expedient of prefixing the particle 
mal to a quality, to form its opposite. The 
result is unpleasant and inexact. Bona in 
Esperanto is good ; malbona = bad. Not 
good is by no means the equivalent of bad, 
nor is not young the appropriate term for old. 
Such clumsy and contradictory modes of 
expression are alien to the spirit of Uterature. 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 65 

Suppose Herrick had written : " Not-young 
Time is still a flying " ; or Blake : " Not big 
lamb, who made thee ? " ! The particle mal, 
in its wide international usage, denotes the 
positive quaUty ill, not a mere negation. 
Malfermi, which in Esperanto is to open, 
conveys to every European the idea : 
imperfectly closed. 

The Esperanto verb admits of no irregu- 
larities, and it has aboHshed the indication of 
number ; but it indicates tense and mode by 
inflections, instead of by the modem 
analytical method. There is but one 
auxiliary — the verb to he. This is a lack ; 
for the two principal auxiUaries of being and 
attribution certainly contribute different 
shades of meaning, and the trend of modern 
language is to make a greater use of auxilia- 
ries. In seeking simpHfication, we should 
be careful not to reduce the capacity of the 
language for exact expression. 

Dr Zamenhof invented for Esperanto a 
table of forty-five much debated correlative 
words, many of which are difficult to pro- 
nounce ; i.e. Nen-i-es, ki-es, and Ti-u. 

Esperanto is much more speedily learnt 
than any natural language ; indeed there is 
much less in it to learn. It is a great advance 
upon Volapiik ; yet, in spite of its many 
translations from the classics, it cannot 
become an efficient medium for literature, or 



66 DELPHOS 

a genuine link in the European speech-family, 
unless it is subjected to drastic and funda- 
mental changes. 

• Example : 

Mi naskigis en Bjelostoko. Tiu ci loko de 

mia naskigo kaj de miaj infanaj jaroj donis 

la direkton al ciuj miaj estontaj celadoj — 

from a letter of Dr Zamenhof. 

Ido 
Ido has adopted the main structure of 
Esperanto. It has abohshed the special 
accented letters ; but its own spelling, 
together with the grammatical finals o, a, e, 
i, which it has taken over from its parent, 
frequently disguise international words. 
Words which begin with ther, tur and ter, are 
all spelt with ter. Thus the Ido word termo, 
which might be taken for term, turns out to 
mean thermal spring. Root-words are taken 
from heterogeneous sources. A striking 
example of Ido reasoning is given m relation 
to the word home. Idists reject the Latin 
words, domicilium, domus, and casa as giving 
no true equivalent ; also the English home, 
because, as it is a noun, the system would 
require that a final o should be added to it, 
and homo has akeady been appropriated as 
the word for man. The German Heim is 
excluded, because of its diphthongized pro- 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 67 

nunciation. Therefore Ido takes the Dutch 
hem and makes it hemo, which, so far from 
being the 6^a.v famihar term, from which 
Enghsh Idists could not part, is unrecog- 
nizable by any people. Another such word 
is summer, which Ido makes somero. But 
if home and summer can stand the test of 
indispensability with cafe and maccaroni, let 
them be adopted simply as home and summer. 
Their origin will then be plain. Having no 
guide to their source, one could not guess the 
meaning of the following Ido words without 
reference to the dictionary : skalo, from the 
Latin scalae ; tualetar from the French 
toilette ; tayo = waist from the French taille ; 
shirmar = to shelter, from the German schir- 
men ; torto (given the Ido noun-ending) one 
would expect to signify tort, which in the 
sense of wrong or injury has a wide inter- 
nationality, and has produced in EngUsh the 
well-known words tortuous and torture. In 
Ido, however, torto stands for tart, because 
German has torte for tart, though German has 
also tort for wrong. Tro-uzar, which is Ido 
for to use to excess, approximates closely to 
nursery jargon. The international word 
maritime becomes marala, in conformity with 
the prescribed affixes. 

Ido prides itself on its system of derivation, 
which embodies what Dr Couturat described 
as *' the principle of reversibility ". 



68 DELPHOS 

This must be explained. Esperanto nouns, 
verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are formed 
direct 1}^ from the stem, by adding the allotted 
vowel-termination. Given the stem, it is 
quite easy in Esperanto to say what the verb 
or other part of speech shlU be. Ido, on the 
contrary, has a dual method, which differs 
according to whether the stem indicates : 
(i) a state of being or an action ; (2) the 
name of a person or thing. No verb can be 
directly derived from an adjective, or from 
a noun, unless the noun expresses an act or 
condition ; no substantive from a verb, unless 
the substantive expresses the state or action 
denoted by the verb. In other cases an 
intermediate affix is required, and this affix 
must be chosen to fit the particular case. 
Such compact English expressions as : To 
crown and to ship Idists regard as " in- 
admissible " in a " logically constructed 
language to be used by diverse linguistic 
groups ".^ Thus in Ido krono = crown, but 
to crown is kronizar ; Paco = peace ; pacar = 
to he at (or in) peace ; pacigar = to pacify or 
appease ; paceskar = to make peace ; pacifar 
= to make for peace ; pacala = relating to 
peace ; pacema = pacific ; who likes peace ; 
pacoza = peaceful or which is at peace ; 
pacifanta, paciganta = pacifying ; pacigo — 
pacification, or peace-making, appeasement. 

^ Dyer's Ido Dictionary, 1924. 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 69 

All this is wandering towards the synthetic 
mazes of Volapiik. 

In its conjugation Ido is more synthetic 
than Esperanto. We do not think the modern 
mind, particularly that which employs 
EngUsh speech, and the same may be said 
with even greater reason of the Chinese, will 
enchain its expression in such grammatical 
exercises as on next page.^ 

In the third person plural of the pronouns 
Ido has four forms — general, masculine, 
feminine, and neuter ; redundances which 
modern language finds unnecessary. 

Ido has expunged some Esperanto crudi- 
ties. It has also created some new ones. A 
critical examination of its dictionary must 
result in expelling a large proportion of its 
words, if internationality is to be the test. 

Example : 

Nun la mondlingual movado avancas per 

ke la unesna grupani, la reala idealisti, 

esforcas ohjektale informar la lasta grupani. 

— K. KozAVi in Ido. 

* Dyer's Ido Dictionary, 1924. 



70 DELPHOS 



bo tuo 



b 0) > > <i^ <i; 

'^ ^ ^ rjO rTi 

•"^ ""j I— I i-H rij "^ 



Vi Ui 



o^ 


rQ 


C« 


•Vh 


W 


u 


o 


r« 


l/i 


o5 


<D 





1 


^ 


<1^ S 


a 


^^ 


^ 


o-c 


^ 


"•^ ►i 




-M f^ 


> 


3 "u 


oJ 


-Sf 


^ 






s 

rt CO c5 b 9 

rt^ o ^ 

•J^ o ^ o 

r^ CO O) Cf) 

to <D <U <U 



1 




J-l CO 


^ CO 


•n: CO 


-7^ ? 


^ 9 


^.-a 


.r^ 




o ^ 


o *h 


CO ^ 


CO CO 


0) W 


<U (V 



^ ^ s 1 ^ 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 71 

Interlingua 

In its vocabulary Interlingua is the most 
a posteriori of the a posteriori languages. It 
goes furthest in eliminating grammar. It is 
composed of International words, the Latin 
form of such words being employed wherever 
it exists. Otherwise either the most inter- 
national form, or that of the language in 
which the word originated is chosen. Only 
those Latin words are used which have a 
wide international] ty in the Uving languages 
of to-day. All Anglo-Latin words and all 
Greek stems which have produced inter- 
national words are included. For these last 
Interlingua does not simply employ the 
Latin orthography, but writes the words 
according to accepted philological methods 
of transcribing Greek words in the Roman 
alphabet. The classical Latin pronunciation 
is recommended. 

In the main, Interlingua can be read at 
first sight by people of fair education who do 
not know Latin. The meaning of most of its 
words can be discovered from a good English 
dictionary. Some of the small correlative 
words, all of which are taken direct from the 
Latin, will have to be learnt. Most of them, 
however, are familiar to us as affixes, retain- 
ing their original meaning even if not used as 
separate words. These include ai = to^ 
which we know in adhere ; ante = hefore^ 



72 DELPHOS 

which we have in antecedent ; contra — 
against, occurring in contradict. Many others 
are common also in Latin phrases which 
appear frequently in English books, such as : 
ut infra = as below ; ut supra = as above ; 
idem = the same. Students who learn these 
correlative words will not waste their time 
even should they never make use of Inter- 
lingua, because they need them for EngHsh 
itself. 

Peano's Vocabulario Commune (1915) con- 
tains 14,000 Anglo-Latin words, 999 out of 
every 1,000 of which are common also to 
ItaUan and French, whilst the majority are 
found also in Spanish and German, and many 
in Russian. This work is valuable to all 
students of comparative philology. Each 
word is given in the Latin form chosen for 
Interhngua, and in the forms it assumes in 
the other languages. Thus the word is 
clearly displayed for immediate comparison. 
The chosen form is accompanied by the 
endings given to it in the Latin dictionaries' 
used in schools, that of the nominative of the 
noun and the first person singular of the verb. 
Post-classical Latin words are accompanied 
by figures indicating the century to which 
they belong. The meaning, derivation, and 
derivatives of each word are also given. For 
example, it is shown that the Interlingua 
word machina, which, as in all cases, is the 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 73 

Latin stem according to Peano's method of 
selection, is macchina in Italian, machine in 
French and EngUsh, Maschine in German, 
mdquina in Spanish, and machina in Portu- 
guese. It is also shown that this word comes 
from the ancient European magh, from which 
are derived the EngUsh way. and the German 
mogen and Macht. Derivatives are similarly 
treated. The Interlingua Latin verb admira 
= to admire is shown to produce admirahile, 
which is the same in Italian, is admirable in 
English and in French, and is admirahel in 
German. It also produces in Latin and in 
Interlingua admiratione = admiration, and 
'admiratore = admirer. 

A glance through the words thus displayed 
convinces us that anyone possessing a good 
knowledge either of English, French, or 
German has the elements of Inter-European 
communication. Even where a common 
substantive or verb may be lacking, the 
common stem will be found by turning to 
one of the other parts of speech. Thus, 
though in English we say wall, for what in 
Latin and Italian is muro, in French mur, in 
German Maur, we English use the same stem 
in the adjective mural and in the verb 
to immure. 

Uninflected Latin words are regarded as 
stems and retained intact. In the case of 
inflected words, Peano takes as the stem, 



74 DELPHOS 

that is to say the essential part of the word, 
the imperative of the verb, or the infinitive 
without the suffix re, and the ablative case 
of the noun. In this choice he differs from 
the authors of most other artificial languages, 
who divest the stem of all vocalic ending. 
Thus, whilst Peano regards rosa, pede, sensu, 
and libro as the stem of the words in question, 
many others take ros, ped, sens, and libr, 
which have a mutilated appearance, and are 
often difficult to pronounce. Having thus 
clipped the words, Volapiik, Esperanto, Ido, 
Neutral, Romanal, and others add artificial 
terminations to indicate the grammatical 
parts of speech. Interlingua, on the contrary, 
adds nothing to the stem (with the sole 
exception of s to form the plural of nouns) 
except such endings as actually occur in the 
Latin form of the existing international word. 
In other words Interlingua deletes existing 
grammatical terminations which are held to 
be unnecessary : it does not coin new ones : 
nor does it take existing affixes and attach 
them to any words to which they have not 
hitherto been attached in Latin. 

Peano' s Dictionary gives a list of suffixes, 
but these are actual Latin suffixes, already 
attached to international words. It is not 
intended to change them about in an 
arbitrary manner, but to retain them as they 
have developed in usage. 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 75 

Those who have become accustomed to the 
methods of the other artificial languages 
often find this distinction difficult to grasp. 
Thus, in his Short History of the International 
Language Movement, Professor A. L. Gu6rard 
criticizes Professor Peano's selection of the 
stem, and urges that the supine is richer in 
derivatives than the stem as defined in 
Interhngua. He says : 

" We have scribe, to describe, etc. ; but 
we have script, scripture ; we have legible, 
legend ; but we have lecture, lectern ; we 
have agent, agenda ; but also act, action, 
active ; in French, we find corriger by the 
side of correct, correction, correcteur. It is 
pretty safe to say that of the two forms the 
supine is richer in modem derivatives." 
Turning to Peano's Dictionary of Inter- 
lingua, we find therein all the forms of the 
supine indicated by Professor Guerard. The 
Dictionary shows that Interhngua does not 
merely use scribe = write, and describe = 
describe, as Professor Guerard says ; but also 
scripto = script and scriptura = scripture, as 
well as all the other forms he has mentioned 
as international. How is this ? The explana- 
tion is that Interhngua regards each word 
from the standpoint of its meaning and its 
internationahty. The Latin past participle 
ending in to (as in amato, scripto, and the 
other forms mentioned) is used — but only 



76 DELPHOS 

where it occurs in international words. 

The Academia in 1890 (during its Idiom 
Neutral period) decided to regularize the 
Latin passive participle, which is not uniform 
in all verbs and sometimes modifies the stem. 
In securing uniformity, the Academia created 
a number of artificial words. This method, 
the old method of Volapiik, was discarded 
with the coming of Interlingua. In accord 
with Peano's dictum that the minimum of 
grammar is no grammar, inflections, as such, 
are ruthlessly abolished. Person and number 
are not indicated by the verb, as these are 
shown by the noun or pronoun. 

Tense is not indicated by the verb, but by 
qualifying words : Hodie nos ES in Paris = 
To-day we be in Paris ; Heri me ES in Roma = 
yesterday we be in Rome ; Cras vos ES in 
Torino — To-morrow we be in Turin. In 
each case the verbal form es remains un- 
changed. As in EngUsh tense can be indicated 
by auxiUaries ; the past by e preceding the 
Verb : Qui e bibe — who has drunk. Peano 
shows that e in this sense is derived from the 
ancient European, being so used in Greek 
and in Latin. The future can be denoted 
by i : Qui 1 bibe = who will drink, or, more 
literally, who will go to drink, for i is the 
stem of the verb to go. It occurs in Latin : 
IS, ivi, itum, ire. Italian : andare, ire gire 
iva, ito ; French = oiler, irais, iras, ira, 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 77 

irai ; Spanish, ir, iha, ido ; Portuguese, ir, 
la, ido. The same stem is found in the 
EngUsh words transitory and itinerant. Desire 
and obUgation are indicated by the auxiUaries 
vol, which we EngUsh find in voluntary, and 
dehe, which has given us debit. 

The modes of the verb are not indicated 
by any change in its form, but by pre- 
positions, as in EngUsh. The Latin phrase : 
In dubio abstine = in doubt abstain is un- 
changed in InterUngua, because, in this case, 
the Latin phrase has no inflections to discard. 

For the infinitive the stem alone is generaUy 
used, adding, where necessary, the Latin 
preposition ad, which has the same meaning 
as the EngUsh to. I Study, I desire to study 
is rendered Me stude, me vol stude. Me habe 
libros AD stude = I have books to study. 
When the infinitive is employed as an 
abstract noun, the Greek article to = the, 
which comes from the ancient European, can 
be used, thus : To err is human — to erra es 
humano. This expedient perhaps sUghtly 
opens the door to the patchwork process of 
combining diverse Unguistic elements accord- 
ing to individual fancy, which has produced 
a plethora of hybrid artificial languages. 
Peano himself usually prefers to invert the 
statement, and make it simply : hom^ erra = 
man errs. 

Adjectives are invariable. Nouns lose 



78 DELPHOS 

their case-endings. The genitive is expressed 
by de as in French. The plural of nouns is 
formed in s ; but only used where not other- 
wise indicated. For instance : leones = lions, 
but duo hone = two lions. Sex is indicated 
only where the sense requires it, the existing 
form of mascuHne and feminine being used, 
or the noun followed by mas or femina, to 
indicate the sex, as in the Latin canis mas, 
cams femina. The article is completely 
abolished. 

The pronouns are the direct or indirect 
case of the Latin pronouns, chosen again on 
the principle of internationality and used 
without indication of case. Me = me, I ; 
te = thou ; illo = he, him ; nos = we, us ; 
vos = you ; illos = they, them. 

Interlingua is generally accepted as easier 
to read at first sight than the other artificial 
languages. Some critics object that its 
retention of the Latin terminations makes 
it less easy to write and speak correctly than 
if it were to adopt a regular series of artificial 
suffixes. Interlinguists reply that there is no 
greater difficulty in remembering the end of 
a word than any other part of it ; that 
Interlingua words are already familiarized 
by international usage ; and that to attach 
to famiHar stems a set of arbitrary suffixes 
would be to make them difficult and strange. 

New Latin words are constantly made to 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 79 

fulfil new functions : largely for naming 
inventions and discoveries. The coinage 
proceeds upon established and well-known 
principles. The general use of an inter- 
language based on Latin would inevitably 
increase it ; but the words would appear only 
in response to need. 
Example : 

Tunc surge muUitudine de studios novo, 
unde resuUa que linguas de Europa habe 
numeroso vocahulo commune ; que vocahu- 
lario internationale es in quasi totaUtate 
latino, et que illo suffice pro construe lingua 
toto naturale intelligible ad primo visu aut 
quasi ab omni homo culto, et plus simpffc^ 
et regular e que Volapiik. 

ROMANAL 

Romanal is an attempt to combine the 
intemationality and Latinity of Interlingua 
with a grammatical structure similar to that 
of Esperanto. Its author, Dr A. Michaux, 
of Boulogne-sur-Mer, is a member of the 
Academia pro InterUngua, which he has 
followed in his wise choice of Latin surviving 
in the living languages, as the basis of his 
vocabulary. Like the Academia, he adopts 
the Latin orthography and pronunciation ; 
but, following Esperanto, he allots a special 
letter to terminate each of the grammatical 
parts of speech. Proper names (as in 



8o DELPHOS 

Esperanto) are made to conform to this 
system, A merica becoming A merice. Volapiik, 
Esperanto, and Ido are followed in word- 
building by a series of affixes attachable to 
any stem. In this manner regularity is 
attained, but the familiar aspect of Latin 
international words is sacrificed. Monte, for 
instance, becomes Montasse. 

Ignoring the modern trend towards the 
analytical, Dr Michaux has invented a new 
synthetic conjugation of the verb. He forms 
the active voice, in all modes and tenses, 
without an auxihary. He employs the 
auxiliary to be for the passive voice ; but, 
instead of the Latin esse, uses the Spanish 
estar. His conjugation includes such forms 
as me amaveran = I shall have loved ; me 
amavun = I should have loved ; amavant = 
having loved ; amerav = to have the duty to 
love ; amerant = having the duty to love ; 
amerat = having the duty to he loved. These 
complicated forms are much nearer to 
Volapiik than anything in Ido or in Esperanto. 

The method of derivation is midway 
between Esperanto and Ido. If the stem is 
that of an object, the verb suffix can be 
added, as in Esperanto, without an inter- 
mediate affix. Thus coron-e = crown, coronar 
= to crown^ ; but, if the stem indicates a 

1 Compare with Ido : Kron-o = crown ; Kron- 

iz-ir = to crown. 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 8i 

person, an intermediate affix is required. If 
the stem is that of a verb, an intermediate 
affix is required to form a substantive. 

Romanal is an effort to combine two 
mutually confficting policies. 

Example : 

Li Meliori lingue auxiUari est ille quel 
possan facilim comprendar li americanos 
del norde et illos del sude. 

Universal 

Universal (1903), later called Panroman 
(1906), by Dr H. Molenaar, is another neo- 
Latin language. Its vocabulary is formed 
from words found in at least two of the 
Romance languages. Dr Molenaar has made 
the common mistake of attempting to 
simplify international words in a haphazard 
manner. Moreover, his choice of stems is 
not reduced to rule. Etymology is obscured 
in such words as Kan = dog ; Kar = dear ; 
laser, from the French laisser. 

Example : 

Kommunikazioni internazional deven sem- 
per plus grand. Un facil komprension 
mutual es nezes in komerz, art, szienz, in 
viagi kongresi e mil okasioni. 
Universal has been put to practical use in 
the Positivist quarterly Humanitat. 



82 DELPHOS 

Medial Europan 
Joseph and Betti Weisbart have displayed 
a charming ingenuity in the illustrated text- 
book of their Lingue Medial Europan. 
Europan attempts to provide a mean between 
the Latin and the German and Slav languages. 
To the difficulties produced by that attempt, 
it adds its own method of spelling. Esperanto 
is followed in the grammatical terminations, 
though the endings are different. The verb 
is synthetic. 
Example : 

Tuti es silent. Ni home es exier le domes 
ultra le duktento del kaval-vagon, qui veha po 
le voye via le ponte al vilaje. — Ilustrat 
ABECEDARIE del Lingue Medial Europan. 

Occidental 
Occidental, by E. von Wahl (Reval), has 
its circle of adherents and its monthly 
magazine Kosmoglott. It is a partially 
a priori amalgam, based on the principal 
European languages. Curious features are 
n' to indicate ny, and /' to indicate ly (as in 
the EngHsh folio) ; also the use of double 
consonants, for example : stopp = stop. The 
juxtaposition of words from various lan- 
guages sometimes modified according to the 
fancy of the author, makes a discordant 
impression ; for instance : along = along ; 
alor — then ; alqual — somewhat ; chascun^^ 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 83 

everyone ; nequi = no one ; necos = nothing ; 
mem = even ; nyti = ninety. 

The choice of auxihary verbs is whimsical. 
Fe = did, which assists in forming the 
preterite, is purely a priori, as is veil, the 
auxiliary used to form the conditional. Fe, 
by the way, is not the past tense of far = to 
make or to do ; it is used only as auxiliary to 
the formation of the preterite. Veil also has 
only the one use. The same is true of va, 
the auxihary used for the future tense, though 
it is evidently drawn from the Latin vado = 
to go. Pies in an adaptation of the Enghsh 
please. 

In a new language aiming at grammatical 
simphcity, it is strange to introduce a syn- 
thetic perfect, and also two auxiliaries to 
indicate the past ; fe — did, and hav = to 
have. Fe is in part used Hke the English did ; 
but in English, of course, did is used correctly 
only in the negative and interrogative. To 
employ it in the affirmative is colloquial, if 
not vulgar. Modem analytical language is 
not content to divide tense into the old 
grammatical categories. It calls for hmitless 
shades of meaning. These must be conveyed 
by appropriate words, not by a mere variety 
of forms, which express no actual difference 
in meaning. / sang and I did sing convey 
nothing different, nor do their Occidental 
equivalent me cantat, and me fe cantat. 



84 DELPHOS 

Example : 

Mi constata ancor un vez, que Occidental 
es un lingue occidental, e pro to usar anc un 
occidental historic heredat transcription, e li 
usationes del Arab Japanes etc, por nos ne 
es obligativ. — E. von Wahl in Kosmoglott. 

A Summarized View 

The various auxiliary-language attempts 
are tending towards a common goal : the 
elimination of formal grammar and a vocabu- 
lary of inter-European words with an over- 
whelming preponderance of Latin. In spite 
of the obdurates, philological discussions are 
constantly proceeding between the various 
schools ; and it becomes increasingly clear 
that the creation of an acceptable medium 
is a long task, in which the labour of many 
minds must be combined. 

The greater share of the first spade-work 
for Interlanguage was done by the Sociahsts 
and lovers of popular fraternity ; then came 
the Pacifists and the humanitarians. To-day 
science, commerce, diplomacy, sociology, and 
the general world of public opinion begin to 
recognize Interlanguage as a necessity. 
^OT the ideal of a world medium of under- 
standing and utility, of pacification and 
fraternity, the work of the Esperantists has 
been unrivalled. It is a great monument of 
devotion and ability. The palm for linguistic 



INTERLANGUAGE ATTEMPTS 85 

excellence, amongst the existing inter- 
languages, must, on the other hand, be 
given to Peano's Interlingua, because it is 
the first systematic attempt to build up an 
inter-European vocabulary on a consistent 
scientific basis ; because it goes furthest in 
the elimination of grammar, under the 
guidance of observed tendencies in natural 
language ; above all, because it is a logical 
etymological attempt to create the poor 
man's simpHfied Latin, which will open to 
him the nomenclature of the sciences, and will 
enable him to understand the prescription of 
his doctor and the legal phrases contained in 
the lawyer's presentment of his case 



:ainea 



VII 

THE GOVERNMENTS AND THE 
INTERLANGUAGE 

THE Interlanguage cannot be the crea- 
tion of Governments. No Government 
attempts to dictate in regard to the grammar 
and syntax of the national tongue. Even in 
France such matters are left to the Academic. 
Government schools everywhere teach accord- 
ing to the generally accepted canons estab- 
lished by those who make a special study of 
the given subject. So with the Interlanguage ; 
it will develop with the general consensus of 
world-opinion, led by the speciaUsts. Its 
discovery and perfection must be mainly the 
work of philologists, working, not as propa- 
gandists and politicians, but as scientists and 
students. After the philologists will come 
the stylists ; the poets, and thinkers. 

Even should all, or most. Governments, 
perhaps through the medium of the League 
of Nations, be induced to give official 
recognition to one of the existing artificial 
languages, the decision would be merely 
formal. The real decision would rest, first 
with savants, whose researches are con- 
tinuous ; secondly with the mills of usage in 



GOVERNMENTS & INTERLANGUAGE 87 

which the interlanguage will become practical, 
and in which, though in some aspects it may- 
be vulgarized, in the large result it will be 
beautified and enriched. 

Unless the decision of Cabinets be in 
harmony with social needs and fundamental 
Unguistic tendencies, it will not stand. If 
they reject the Interianguage it will never- 
theless make progress, 
governments desirous of furthering the 
estabUshment of a world-auxiliary should 
first endow interlanguage research. Chairs 
of synthetic philology should be estabUshed 
in all universities^ An Interlanguage In- 
stitute should be created for comparative 
inter-European philological research ; for 
the study of compromise-languages, for the 
classification and analysis of grammar and 
phonetics, and for research into their 
evolution in all parts of the world, viewed 
from the interlanguage standpoint. This 
Institute should be established in each 
country and at an international centre. The 
greatest philologists should be enhsted for 
its work. Reports should be issued by it to 
the Press, the Learned Societies, and educa- 
tional institutions. Its function would be 
advisory, but if it were an efficient body, it 
would achieve a commanding influence. 

Thus the Interlanguage would be estab- 
lished by the development of a general 



88 DELPHOS 

consensus of world philological opinion. For 
a period, the resultant language would 
remain fluid. Various schools of thought 
would adopt various modifications of the 
general speech. Already, though they have 
grown up haphazard, the existing competing 
artificial languages have come to possess so 
much in common that they have been 
described as dialects of a common language. 

The practical test of the Interlanguage 
will be intelligibiUty. Men and women will 
not cling to forms which do not convey their 
meaning to others. Moreover, average people 
readily accept the dicta of specialists in 
matters of learning. Scientists are the most 
harmonious section of humanity, and may 
be trusted to assist the world in finding an 
acceptable medium. 

Interlanguage teaching in elementary and 
secondary schools should at present be 
frankly tentative. The wise teacher of 
chemistry informs the pupils that the science 
is in a state of flux, that the theories of 
twenty years ago have been overturned, and 
those of to-day may also in time be discarded. 
So with Interlanguage : pupils should be 
informed of the true position. Simple 
courses in comparative philology should be 
given. Children should be taught to trace 
inter-European words in the forms they have 
acquired in the various European languages, 



GOVERNMENTS & INTERLANGUAGE 89 

and to decompose and analyse words in their 
native language which have come from Latin 
or other foreign sources. Such instruction 
is particularly valuable to children speaking 
our h3^brid EngHsh. The course should 
include a review of the grammatical changes 
which have occurred in the native language 
and of grammatical tendencies in other 
languages. An account of the interlanguage 
movement should also be given. 

As speciaUzed philological opinion upon 
the Interlanguage reaches a fairly general 
consensus, it wiU be embodied in text-books 
for use in the regular curricula of schools. 

The Interlanguage will introduce new 
social strata both to international communi- 
cations and to culture. It wiU grow with 
employment, as all other languages have 
grown. Yet its basis will lie in the historical 
accumulations of long ages. Like every 
living language, it will provide for new 
inventions and new ideas, new words built 
in harmony with accepted standards, and 
with affixes already in habitual use. In the 
Interlanguage, no more than in other 
languages, will there be many writers 
desirous of achieving the creation of five 
new words a year, as recommended by a 
certain American writer. 

The Interlanguage will provide a means by 
which the thoughts and emotions of mankind, 



90 DELPHOS 

as expressed in language, may achieve a 
world-comprehension, which is to-day possible 
only in music. 

There is work here for our teachers and 
students, our pacifists, and our sociologists. 
Let them rally to the standard of Inter- 
language — to perfect it, and to advance it. 



VIII 
IN THE FUTURE 

WE are looking towards a future in 
which the procuring of mere food and 
raiment and a modicum of shelter will not 
monopoUze so large a share of the individual 
life and energy as is now the case. The 
present widespread material scarcity will 
be replaced by abundance ; education and 
culture will be widely diffused. 

With economic problems and rivalries 
largely swept away by the advent of plenty 
for all ; and, consequently, with a healthier, 
more contented, and more united world- 
population, great cultural changes will take 
place. These will enhance the utility of the 
Interlanguage. 

The newspapers will no longer fill their 
columns with accounts of larceny and 
intemperance, wars, industrial disputes, and 
the speeches of party politicians. Science, 
art, and Uterature will take first place. Only 
the pages devoted wholly to Uterature 
will be printed in the national language. 
The news will appear in the Interlanguage. 
Where thousands of people are to-day 
interested in reading of what others have 



92 DELPHOS 

done in art and science, millions will then 
delight in their actual pursuit. These 
millions will be eager for news of the dis- 
coveries of people engaged in similar activities 
all over the globe. The frontiers will form 
no barrier and insularity will be no more. 

The mechanism of the Press will be 
revolutionized. The news will be transmitted 
by wireless telegraphy, and its impression 
recorded on metal from which it may be 
printed. No typesetting machine will be 
required. The synchronized tape-machine 
is the precursor of this development. 

By using the Interlanguage it will be 
possible to send all news to one world 
receiving-station, for retransmission every- 
where ; or to three, four, or five such stations, 
if preferred. Events of universal importance 
will be conveyed in concise words that will 
require no re-writing. Much of to-day's 
tedious sub-editing will disappear. Though 
world-society will have become more homo- 
geneous, certain news items will be of greater 
interest to certain parts of the world than to 
others. These may be supplemented by 
special articles which may appear in the 
Interlanguage. If they contain expert 
information or important local opinion, they 
will be copied by papers in other parts of 
the world. 

All scientific and technical books and 



IN THE FUTURE 93 

journals will be written in the Interlanguage. 
During an interim period, before everyone 
has a famiUar knowledge of it, some works 
may be written in the native tongue of their 
authors and pubUshed simultaneously with 
an Interlanguage translation. Scientists 
have such vital need of co-operation that 
they will gladly clothe their thoughts in the 
language that will be common to their 
international fraternity, just as they did of 
old in Latin. Based on Latin, the main 
vehicle of their existing nomenclature, the 
Interlanguage will prove no difficult barrier 
to them. 

Interlanguage will accelerate scientific 
research and increase the speed of inter- 
national communications. It will be used 
for foreign correspondence, and conferences, 
and for broadcasting ; always for trans- 
frontier, and frequently for home telephonic 
and telegraphic communications. It will be 
displayed in street signs and public vehicles. 
It will be as familiar to the eye as the national 
language. No traveller will fail to under- 
stand it. 

Probably fifty (perhaps even thirty) years 
hence no one will be troubled by learning the 
Interlanguage. It will be acquired at the 
toddling age, side by side with the mother- 
tongue. 

The schools will be wholly bi-Hngual. The 



94 DELPHOS 

Interlanguage and the native language will 
be used in teaching children, who will enter 
school with a famiUar-speaking knowledge 
of both. For arithmetic, geometry, mathe- 
matics, astronomy, chemistry, the geography 
and history of foreign countries, the Inter- 
language will be the vehicle of instruction, 
the national language being employed for the 
literature, history, and geography of the 
native land. Elocution will be practised in 
both tongues. 

The children will correspond with school- 
fellows and club-mates in distant countries. 
Such international associations of the world's 
youth as the boy and girl scouts, and the 
present small scale organization of school- 
journeys are mere tentative beginnings of 
what is destined to be a great movement of 
the young people of all countries — stretching 
forth with the buoyant enthusiasm of youth 
to learn the universe. To-day many a lad 
joins the Army with the sole purpose of going 
abroad. To-morrow, aided by radiophony, 
television, the Interlanguage, and countless 
enlarging means of education and travel, all 
children will revel in finding the world open 
to their adventure. 

The Interlanguage wiU play its part in the 
making of the future, in which the peoples 
of the world shall be one people : a people 
cultured and kind, and civilized beyond 



IN THE FUTURE 95 

to-day's conception, speaking a common 
language, bound by common interests, when 
the wars of class and of nations shall be 
no more. 



Kq P9t{stjqnd; 



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9q; 'gjti^-Bjg^q jo uijoj b jo ] 
'9DiJd M0| B ^B p9nssi 'S9mn|0A 
9S9q:^ ui 99S o; Sut;s9J9;ut si 
-Old JBpopiBd q^TM j-e9p sj; 

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pu9j; 9Jn;nj 9q; o; p9;oA9p 9. 

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UI ;q§noq; uj9poui ;som 9q:^ 

SupBpUipS B q;TM J9pB9I 91 

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Aj:^U9nb9Jj ^looq 9uo 'av9IA jo s;u 
mojj U9;:^TJ^ •;u9A9 Aq:^JOA\ 

P9ZIUS009I 90U0 :^B SBM 'Sl 

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9q; JO 9UI0S Aq 'sjfooq jo S9tj 



19U 9/2 'spAvoq 'oflg ftocf 't(Ot 



QNv Ava-o 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 



FROM THE REVIEWS 

Times Literary Supplement : " An entertaining 
series." 

Spectator : " Scintillating monographs." 

Observer : " There seems no reason why the 
brilliant To-day and To-morrow Series should 
come to an end for a century of to-morrows. 
At first it seemed impossible for the publishers 
to keep up the sport through a dozen volumes, 
but the series already runs to more than two 
score. A remarkable series . . ." 

Nation : " We are able to peer into the future 
by means of that brilliant series [which] will 
constitute a precious document upon the 
present time." — ^T. S. Eliot. 

Manchester Dispatch : " The more one reads of 
these pamphlets, the more avid becomes the 
appetite . We hope the lis t is endless . ' ' 

Irish Statesman : " Full of lively controversy." 

Daily Herald : " This series has given us many 
monographs of brilliance and discernment. . . . 
The stylistic excellences of this provocative 
series." 

Field : ' ' We have long desired to express the 
deep admiration felt by every thinking 
scholar and worker at the present day for this 
series. We must pay tribute to the high 
standard of thought and expression they 
maintain. As small gift-books, austerely yet 
prettily produced, they remain unequalled 
of their kind. We can give but the briefest 
suggestions of their value to the student, 
the politician, and the voter. ..." 

Japan Chronicle : " While cheap prophecy is 
a futile thing, wisdom consists largely in look- 
ing forward to consequences. It is this that 
makes these books of considerable interest." 

New York World : ' ' Holds the palm in the 
speculative and interpretative thought of the 
age." 

[2] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

VOLUMES READY 

Daedalus, or Science and the Future. 
By J. B. S. Haldane, Reader in 
Biochemistry, University of Cambridge. 
Seventh impression. 

" A fascinating and daring little book." 
— Westminster Gazette. ' ' The essay is brilliant, 
sparkling with wit and bristling with 
challenges." — British Medical Journal. 

" Predicts the most startling changes." 
— Morning Post. 

Gallinicus, a Defence of Chemical War- 
• fare. By J. B. S. Haldane. Second 

impression. 
"Mr. Haldane 's brilliant study." — Times 

Leadins; Article. " A book to be read by every 

intelligent adult." — Spectator. " This brilliant 

little monograph." — Daily News. 

Icarus, or the Future of Science. By 
Bertrand Russell, f.r.s. Fourth 
impression. 

" Utter pessimism." — Observer. " Mr. 
Russell refuses to beUeve that the progress of 
Science must be a boon to mankind." — 
Morning Post. ** A stimulating book, that 
leaves one not at all discouraged." — Daily 
Herald. 

What I Believe. By Bertrand Russell, 
F.R.S. Third impression. 

" One of the most brilliant and thought- 
stimulating little books 1 have read — a better 
book even than Icarus." — Nation. " Simply 
and brilliantly written." — Nature. " In 
tabbing sentences he punctures the bubble of 
cruelty, en\^, narrowness, and ill-will which 
those in authority call their morals." — New 
Leader. 

[3] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

Tantalus, or the Future of Man. By 
F. C. S. Schiller, D.Sc, Fellow of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Second 
impression. 

" They are all {Daedalus, Icarus, and 
Tantalus) brilliantly clever, and they supple- 
ment or correct one another." — Dean Inge, in 
Morning Post. " Immensely valuable and 
infinitely readable." — Daily News. " The 
book of the week." — Spectator. 

Cassandra, or the Future of the British 
Empire. By F. C. S. Schiller, D.Sc. 

" We commend it to the complacent of all 
parties." — Saturday Review. " The book is 
small, but very, very weighty ; brilliantly 
written, it ought to be read by all shades of 
politicians and students of politics." — York- 
shire Post. " Yet another addition to that 
bright constellation of pamphlets." — Spectator. 

Quo Vadimus ? Glimpses of the Future. 
By E. E. FouRNiER d'Albe,D.Sc., author 
of " Selenium, the Moon Element," etc. 
" A wonderful vision of the future. A book 
that will be talked about." — Daily Graphic. 
" A remarkable contribution to a remarkable 
series." — Manchester Dispatch. " Interesting 
and singularly plausible." — Daily Telegraph. 

Thrasymachus, the Future of Morals. 
By C. E. M. JoAD, author of ''The 
Babbitt Warren, "etc. Second impression. 
" His provocative book." — Graphic. 
"Written in a style of deliberate brilliance." 
— Times Literary Supplement. " As outspoken 
and unequivocal a contribution as could well 
be imagined. Even those readers who dissent 
will be forced to recognize the admirable 
clarity with which he states his case. A book 
that will startle." — Daily Chronicle. 

U] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

Lysistrata, or Woman's Future and 
Future Woman. By Anthony M. 
LuDOVici, author of "A Defence of 
Aristocracy,'* etc. Second Impression. 

" A stimulating book. Volumes would be 
needed to deal, in the fullness his work pro- 
vokes, with all the problems raised." — Sunday 
Times. " Pro-feminine, but anti-feministic." 
Scotsman. " Full of brilliant common-sense." 
— Observer. 

Hypatia, or Woman and Knowledge. By 
Mrs Bertrand Russell. With a 
frontispiece. Third impression. 

An answer to Lysistrata. " A passionate 
vindication of the rights of women." — 
Manchester Guardian. " Says a number of 
things that sensible women have been wanting 
publicly said for a long time." — Daily Herald. 

Hephaestus, the Soul of the Machine. 
By E. E. Fournier d'Albe, D.Sc. 

" A worthy contribution to this interesting 
series. A delightful and thought-provoking 
essay." — Birmingham Post. " There is a 
special pleasure in meeting with a book like 
Hephaestus. The author has the merit of really 
understanding what he is talking about." 
— Engineering. " An exceedingly clever 
defence of machinery." — Architects' Journal. 

The Passing of the Phantoms : a Study 
of Evolutionary Psychology and Morals. 
By C. J. Patten, Professor of Anatomy, 
Sheffield University. With 4 Plates. 

" Readers of Daedalus, Icarus and Tantalus, 
will be grateful for an excellent presentation 
of yet another point of view." — Yorkshire 
Post. " This bright and bracing litcle book," 
Literary Guide. " Interesting and original." 
— Medical Times. 

[5] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

The Mongol in our Midst : a Study of 
Man and his Three Faces. By F. G. 
CROOKSHANK, M.D., F.R.C.P. With 28 
Plates. Second Edition, revised. 

" A brilliant piece of speculative induction." 
— Saturday Review. " An extremely interest- 
ing and suggestive book, which will reward 
careful reading." — Sunday Times. " The 
pictures carry fearful conviction." — Daily 
Herald. 

The Conquest of Cancer. By H. W. S. 

Wright, m.s., f.r.c.s. Introduction 
by F. G. Crookshank, m.d. 

" Eminently suitable for general reading. 
The problem is fairly and lucidly presented. 
One merit of Mr Wright's plan is that he tells 
people what, in his judgment, they can best 
do, here and now." — From the Introduction. 

Pygmalion, or the Doctor of the Future. 
By R. McNair Wilson, m.b. 

" Dr Wilson has added a brilliant essay 
to this series." — Times Literary Supplement. 
" This is a very little book, but there is much 
wisdom in it." — Evening Standard. " No 
doctor worth his salt would venture to say that 
Dr Wilson was wrong." — Daily Herald. 
Prometheus, or Biology and the Ad- 
vancement of Man. By H. S. Jennings, 
Professor of Zoology, Johns Hopkins 
University. 

" This volume is one of the most remarkable 
that has yet appeared in this series. Certainly 
the information it contains will be new to most 
educated laymen. It is essentially a discussion 
of . . . heredity and environment, and it 
clearly estabUshes the fact that the current 
use of these terms has no scientific 
justification." — Times Literary Supplement. 
"An exceedingly brilliant book." — New Leader. 

£6] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

Narcissus : an Anatomy of Clothes. By 
Gerald Heard. With 19 illustrations. 

" A most suggestive book." — Nation 
** Irresistible. Reading it is like a switchback 
journey. Starting from prehistoric times we 
rocket down the ages." — Daily Newi. 
" Interesting, provocative, and entertaining." 
— Queen. 

Thamyris, or Is There a Future for 
Poetry ? By R. C. Trevelyan. 

" Learned, sensible, and very well- written." 
— Affable Hawk, in New Statesman. " Very 
suggestive." — /. C. Squire, in Observer. 
" A very charming piece of work, I agree 
with all, or at any rate, almost all its con- 
clusions." — J. St. Loe Strachey, in Spectator. 

Proteus, or the Future of Intelligence. 
By Vernon Lee, author of ** Satan the 
Waster," etc. 

" We should like to follow the author's 
suggestions as to the effect of intelligence on 
the future of Ethics, Aesthetics, and Manners. 
Her book is profoundly stimulating and should 
be read by everyone." — Outlook. " A concise, 
suggestive piece of work." — Saturday Review. 

Timotheus, the Future of the Theatre. 
By BoNAMY Dobr^e, author of *' Restor- 
ation Drama," etc. 

" A witty, mischievous little book, to be 
read with deUght." — Times Literary Supple- 
ment. " This is a delightfully witty book." 
— Scotsman. " In a subtly satirical vein he 
visuahzes various kinds of theatres in 200 years 
time. His gay little book makes delightful 
reading. ' ' — Nation . 

[7] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

Paris, or the Future of War. By Captain 
B. H. LiDDELL Hart. 

"A companion volume to Callinicus, 
A gem of close thinking and deduction." 
— Observer. " A noteworthy contribution to 
a problem of concern to every citizen in this 
country." — Daily Chronicle. " There is some 
lively thinking about the future of war in 
Paris, just added to this set of live- wire 
pamphlets on big subjects." — Manchester 
Guardian. 

Wireless Possibilities. By Professor 
A. M. Low. With 4 diagrams. 

" As might be expected from an inventor 
who is always so fresh, he has many inter- 
esting things to say." — Evening Standard. 
" The mantle of Blake has fallen upon the 
physicists. To them we look for visions, and 
we find them in this book." — New Statesman. 

Perseus : of Dragons. By H. F. Scott 
Stokes. With 2 illustrations. 

•' A diverting little book, chock-full of ideas. 
Mr Stokes' dragon-lore is both quaint and 
various." — Morning Post. " Very amusingly 
written, and a mine of curious knowledge for 
which the discerning reader will i&nd many 
uses." — Glasgow Herald. 

Lycurgus, or the Future of Law. By 
E. S. P. Haynes, author of " Concerning 
Solicitors," etc. 

"An interesting and concisely written book." 
— Yorkshire Post. " He roundly declares that 
English criminal law is a blend of barbaric 
violence, medieval prejudices, and modern 
fallacies. ... A humane and conscientious 
investigation." — T.P.'s Weekly. " A thought- 
ful book — deserves careful reading." — Law 
Times. 

[8] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

Euterpe, or the Future of Art. By 
Lionel R. McColvin, author of " The 
Theory of Book-Selection/' 

" Discusses briefly, but very suggestively, 
the problem of the future of ait in relation to 
the public." — Saturday Review. " Another 
indictment of machinery as a soul-destroyer 
. . . Mr Colvin has the courage to suggest 
solutions." — Westminister Gazette. " This is 
altogether a much-needed book." — New 
Leader. 

Pegasus, or Problems of Transport. 
By Colonel J. F. C. Fuller, author of 
" The Reformation of War," etc. With 
8 Plates. 

" The foremost military prophet of the day 
propounds a solution for industrial and 
unemployment problems. It is a bold essay 
. . . and calls for the attention of all con- 
cerned with imperial problems." — Daily 
Telegraph. " Practical, timely, very inter- 
esting and very important." — J. St. Loe 
Strachey, in Spectator. 

Atlantis, or America and the Future. 
By Colonel J. F. C. Fuller. 

" Candid and caustic." — Observer. " Many 
hard things have been said about America, 
but few quite so bitter and caustic as these." 
— Daily Sketch. " He can conjure up possi- 
bilities of a new Atlantis." — Clarion. 
Midas, or the United States and the 
Future. By C. H. Bretherton, author 
of " The Real Ireland ", etc. 

A companion volume to Atlantis. " Full of 
astute observations and acute reflections . . . 
this wise and witty pamphlet, a provocation 
to the thought that is creative." — Morning 
Post. " A punch in every paragraph. One could 
hardly ask for rnore ' meat.' " — Spectator. 

[9] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

Nuntius, or Advertising and its Future. 
By Gilbert Russell. 

" Expresses the philosophy of advertising 
concisely and well." — Observer. " It is doubt- 
ful if a more straightforward exposition of 
the part advertising plays in our public and 
private life has been written." — Manchester 
Guardian. 

Birth Control and the State : a Plea 
and a Forecast. By. C. P. Blacker, 

M,C., M.A., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

" A very careful summary." — Times Literary 
Supplement. " A temperate and scholarly 
survey of the arguments for and against the 
encouragement of the practice of birth control." 
— Lancet. " He writes lucidly, moderately, 
and from wide knowledge ; his book un- 
doubtedly gives a better understanding of the 
subject than any other brief account we know. 
It also suggests a pohcy." — Saturday Review. 

Ouroboros, or the Mechanical Extension 
of Mankind. By Caret Garrett. 

" This brilHant and provoking little book." 
— Observer. " A significant and thoughtful 
essay, calculated in parts to make our flesh 
creep." — Spectator. " A brilliant writer, Mr. 
Garrett is a remarkable man. He explains 
something of the enormous change the machine 
has made in life," — Daily Express. 

Artifex, or the Future of Craftsmanship. 
By John Gloag, author of ** Time, 
Taste, and Furniture." 

" An able and interesting summary of the 
history of craftsmanship in the past, a direct 
criticism of the present, and at the end his 
hopes for the future. Mr Gloag's real con- 
tribution to the future of craftsmanship is 
his discussion of the uses of machinery." 
— Times Literary Supplement. 
[lO] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

Plato's American Republic. By J. 

Douglas Woodruff. Third impression. 

" Uses the form of the Socratic dialogue 
with devastating success. A gently malicious 
wit sparkles in every page." — Sunday Times. 
" Having deliberately set himself an almost 
impossible task, has succeeded beyond belief," 
— Saturday Review. " Quite the liveliest 
even of this spirited series." — Observer. 

Orpheus, or the Music of the Future. By 
W. J. Turner, author of " Music and 
Life." 

" A book on music that we can read not 
merely once, but twice or thrice. Mr Turner 
has given us some of the finest thinking upon 
Beethoven that I have ever met with." — 
Ernest Newman in Sunday Times. " A 
briUiant essay in contemporary philosophy." 
— Outlook. " The fruit of real knowledge and 
understanding. ' — New Statesman. 

Terpander, or Music and the Future. By 
E. J. Dent, author of "Mozart's Operas." 

" In Orpheus Mr Turner made a brilliant 
voyage in search of first principles. Mr Dent's 
book is a skilful review of the development of 
music. It is the most succinct and stimulating 
essay on music I have found. . . ." — Musical 
News. "Remarkably able and stimulating." 
— Times Literary Supplement. "There is hardly 
another critic alive who could sum up contem- 
porary tendencies so neatly." — Spectator. 

Sibylla, or the Revival of Prophecy. By 
C. A. Mace, University of St. Andrew's. 
"An entertaining and instructive pamphlet." 
— Morning Post. " Places a nightmare before 
us very ably and wittily." — Spectator. 
" Passages in it are excellent satire, but on 
the whole Mr Mace's speculations may be 
taken as a trustworthy guide ... to modem 
scientific thought." — Birmingham Post. 

[II] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

Lucullus, or the Food of the Future. By 
Olga Hartley and Mrs C. F. Level, 
authors of ' The Gentle Art of Cookery.' 
" This is a clever and witty little volume 
in an entertaining series, and it makes enchant- 
ing reading." — Times Literary Supplement. 
" Opens with a brilliant picture of modern 
man, living in a vacuum-cleaned, steam- 
heated, credit-furnished suburban mansion 
* with a wolf in the basement ' — the wolf of 
hunger. This banquet of epigrams." — 
Spectator. 

Procrustes, or the Future of EngUsh 
Education. By M. Alderton Pink. 

" Undoubtedly he makes out a very good 
case." — Daily Herald. " This interesting 
addition to the series." — Times Educational 
Supplement. " Intends to be challenging and 
succeeds in being so. All fit readers will find 
it stimulating." — Northern Echo. 

The Future of Futurism. By John 

RODKER. 

" Mr. Rodker is up-to-the-minute, and he 
has accomplished a considerable feat in writing, 
on such a vague subject, 92 extremely inter- 
esting pages." — T. S. Eliot, in Nation. 
" There are a good many things in this book 
which are of interest." — Times Literary 
Supplement. 
Pomona, or the Future of EngUsh. By 
Basil de Si^lincourt, author of ' The 
English Secret ', etc. 

" The future of English is discussed fully 
and with fascinating interest." — Morning 
Post. ' ' Has a refreshing air of the unexpected . 
Full of wise thoughts and happy words." 
— Times Literary Supplement. "Here is 
suggestive thought, quite different from 
most speculations on the destiny of our 
language." — Journal of Education. 
[12] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

Balbus, or the Future of Architecture. 
By Christian Barman, editor of ' The 
Architect's Journal '. 

" A really brilliant addition to this already- 
distinguished series. The reading of Balbus 
will give much data for intelligent prophecy, 
and incidentally, an hour or so of excellent 
entertainment." — Spectator. " Most readable 
and reasonable. We can recommend it 
warmly." — New Statesman. " This intriguing 
little book." — Co7tnoisseur. 

JUST PUBLISHED 
Apella, or the Future of the Jews. By 
A Quarterly Reviewer. 

" Cogent, because of brevity and a magni- 
ficent prose style, this book wins our quiet 
praise. It is a fine pamphlet, adding to the 
value of the series, and should not be missed." 
— Spectator. " A notable addition to this 
excellent series. His arguments are a provoca- 
tion to fruitful thinking." — Morning Post. 

The Dance of Qiva, or Life's Unity and 
Rh5^hm. By Collum. 

** It has substance and thought in it. The 
author is very much alive and responsive to 
the movements of to-day which seek to unite 
the best thought of East and West, and dis- 
cusses Mussolini and Jagadis Bose with 
perspi en city . ' ' — Spectator . 

Lars Porsena, or the Future of Swearing 
and Improper Language. By Robert 
Graves. 

" An amusing little book." — Daily Mirror. 
"It is to this subject [of swearing] that Mr. 
Graves brings much erudition and not a little 
irony." — Jofin O'London's Weekly. ** Not for 
squeamish readers." — Spectator. " Too out- 
spoken. The writer sails very near the wind, 
but all the same has some sound constructive 
things to say." — Manchester Dispatch. 

[13] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

Socrates, or the Emancipation of Man- 
kind. By H. F. Carlill. 

Sets out the new view of the nature of man, 
to which the trend of modern psychology, 
anthropology, and evolutionary theory has 
led, shows the important consequences to 
human behaviour and efficiency which are 
bound to follow, and maintains that man is 
at last conscious of his power to control his 
biological inheritance. 

Delphos, or the Future of International 
Language. By E. Sylvia Pankhurst. 

An inquiry into the possibility of a medium 
of inter-communication, auxiliary to the 
mother tongues. A survey of past attempts 
from the sixteenth century to the present 
day. A prophecy of the coming inter- 
language, its form, its social and cultural 
utility, and its influence on world peace. 

Gallio, or the Tyranny of Science. By 
J. W. N. Sullivan, author of "A 
History of Mathematics." 

Is the scientific universe the real universe ? 
What is the character of the universe revealed 
by modem science ? Are values inherent in 
reality ? What is the function of the arts ? 
In addition to answering these questions, the 
author attacks the notion that science is 
materialistic. 

Apollonius, or the Future of Psychical 
Research. By E. N. Bennett, author 
of " Problems of Village Life," etc. 

An attempt to summarize the results secured 
by the scientific treatment of psychical pheno- 
mena, to forecast the future developments of 
such research, and to answer the familiar 
question " What is the good of it all ? " 

[14] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

NEARLY READY 

Janus, or the Conquest of War. By 
William McDougall, M.B., F.R.S., 
Professor of Psychology, Harvard Uni- 
versity, author of " The Group Mind," 
etc. 

A volume of fundamental importance to all 
those who would avoid future wars. Sections 
are devoted to lessons of the Great War, the 
Causes of War, Preventives of War, League 
to Enforce Peace, and International Air Force 
as a Prevention of War. 

Rusticus, or the Future of the Country- 
side. By Martin S. Briggs, F.R.I.B.A., 
author of "A Short History of the 
Building Crafts," etc. 

Attributes much of the blame for the dese- 
cration of our countryside to the petrol engine, 
though he recognizes other contributory causes . 
He attempts to analyse the charm of our 
counties before the Industrial Revolution 
and shows how that movement influenced 
their aspect. Finally he surveys the future, 
making practical suggestions to avoid further 
' uglification.' 

Aeolus, or the Future of the Flying 
Machine. By Oliver Stewart, author 
of "Strategy and Tactics of Air 
Fighting." 

A picture of the air-vehicle and air-battle- 
ship of the future, painted with colours from 
the aeronautical research work of to-day. 
The author foresees that the flying machine 
will resist mass production. Aircraft will 
be exalted as individual creations of the 
Artist-Scientist rather than debased as tools 
of the Commercialist. 

[15] 



TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

Stentor, or the Future of the Press. By 
David Ockham. 

Shows how since the War the control of the 
Press has passed into the hands of only five men . 
The law is powerless, even if willing, to check 
this justification. Now that independent 
organs of opinion are almost eliminated, the 
author discusses the danger to the community 
unless the Public is made aware of the personal- 
ities and policies behind the Trusts. 



IN PREPARATION 

The Future of India. By T. Earle 

Welby. 

An analysis of the spiritual and political 
future of 320 million persons in the light of 
present tendencies. 

Mercurius, or the World on Wings. 
By C. Thompson Walker. 

A picture of the air- vehicle and the air-port 
of to-morrow, and the influence aircraft will 
have on our lives. 

The Future of Films. By Ernest 
Betts. 

Vulcan, or Labour To-Day and To- 
Morrow. By Cecil Chisholm. 



[16] 

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